【2009】二戰丨日內瓦會議



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) (i) 根據資料E,你認為有什麼問題可能令日內瓦會議不能達致其裁軍目標? 試引用資料E一項線索,解釋你的答案。(1+2分)


考生表現

表現良好。很多考生能夠使用資料E的線索,指出一個可能令日內瓦會議不能達致其裁軍目標的問題。部分考生對資料的理解頗為膚淺,認為問題在於各國使用不同語言,有礙溝通;這種答法得分甚低。

評分準則

L1 能引用相關線索,但沒有恰當的解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能引用相關線索,並作恰當解釋。 [最多2分]



問題(1分)︰

例︰列強未能和諧和平。


線索︰ 例︰ - 列強各用自己的語言唱出歌曲。 - 風琴師催促他們用同一語言唱歌。 - 當時和平力量較薄弱。

參考答案

列強未能充分合作導致日內瓦會議失敗告終。 參考資料E,資料中的風琴師希望列強「一起嘗試用同一語言」的情況下「把歌唱出來」,然而漫畫中列強手執不同語言版本的歌詞,包括「英國版」、「日本版」、「法國版」等,反映列強的不合作導致風琴師的願望落空,日內瓦會議終以失敗告吹。

(a)(ii) 你就題(i)所指出的問題,是否出現於1912-32年間其他集體安全的努力?試就你所知,引用兩個例子,解釋你的答案。(4分)

考生表現

表現良好。很多考生能夠使用其個人知識討論題(a)(i)所指出的問題是否出現於1921-32年間其他集體安全的努力。然而,部分考生所用的例子超出題目所定的時限,例如巴黎和會(1919)和慕尼黑協議(1938),因而未能得分。

評分準則

L1 能引用相關例子,但沒有恰當的解釋。 [最多2分] L2 能引用相關例子,並作恰當解釋。 [最多4分]

例子︰ 例︰ - 華盛頓海軍會議(1921-22年) - 羅加諾公約(1925年) - 凱洛格—白里安公約(1928年) - 倫敦海軍會議(1930年)

參考答案

列強分別在羅加諾公約和凱格—白里安公約未能充分合作。 首先,於《羅加諾公約》(1925年)中,協定確立德國、法國和比利時的邊界必須維持現狀,但卻沒有就德國東邊邊界作任何安排,這顯示列強未就此作出共識,實為分歧。 其次,就《凱格—白里安公約》中,列強簽此協定時都帶有條件的限制,就是當該國受到威脅時,可以保留合法的防衛權。「合法的防衛權」反映列強並未就和平條約內容達成共識,留下空間日後擴張,是為誤解。

(b) 資料E能否充分解釋第二次世界大戰爆發的原因?試參考資料E,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。 (6分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能夠參考資料E並就個人所知,解釋為何第1次世界大戰爆發。相對而言,考生在申述資料E時表現較差。部分答案僅概述第二次世界大戰前各事件,沒有意圖解釋它們為何是大戰的成因,因而未能得分。

評分準則

L1 僅運動資料相關史實。 [最多4分] L2 能同時運用資料相關史實;能清楚寫明觀點。 [最多6分] 資料︰ 例︰ - 集體安全並非萬試萬靈 - 日本採取軍國主義的政策(線索︰日本化表是一名軍官) 個人所知︰ 例︰ - 法西斯意大利及納粹德國採取擴張政策 - 英、法等民主國家採取綏靖政策 - 1929年經濟大衰退令民主國家衰弱,令極權主義在德國等國乘時而起

參考答案

資料E未能充分解釋二戰爆發的原因。 首先,資料E能夠反映集體安全體系失敗導致二戰。漫畫家將和平製造者描繪成風琴言,要求各國「嘗試用同一語言」歌唱,但列強卻手執不同語言的曲譜,如「英國版」、「法國版」等,表示集體安全的成效有限,未能阻止二戰爆發。 資料E反映列強未能充分合作導致二戰。漫畫家將列強描述成演唱者,並手持不同版本的「裁軍」歌單,顯示列強各持己見,未能就裁軍議題達成共識,終在缺乏合作的情況下導致二戰。 同時,資料亦能反映日本軍國主義導致二戰。漫畫家在資料中將日本代表描繪成一名軍官,頭戴軍帽,暗示漫畫家認為日本軍國主義興起,積極對外侵略破壞國際和平,使之二戰爆發。 然而,綏靖政策、經濟大衰退和納粹黨崛興也導致二戰。 就我所知,英、法推行綏靖政策,以妥協手段來犧牲小國利益換取和平,此等行動加劇極權主義國家野心,如1939年3月希特拉侵略捷克全境等,埋下二戰發生的伏線。 同時,希特拉帶領的納粹黨於1933年上台,並於1935年重新徵兵制部署戰爭,最後在1939年9月1日突襲波蘭的情況下為二戰揭開序幕。 最後,發生予1929年的經濟大衰退帶來嚴重的經濟問題,如德國失業率近600萬人,經濟困窘滋長極端思想,人們呼吹以戰爭來推動國家經濟發展,長短而言亦導致二戰出現。 可見,資料未能充分說明二戰出現的成因。


參考答案(英文版)


(a)(i) According to Source E, what do you think was the problem that might have made the Geneva Conference unable to achieve its aim of disarmament? Cite one clue from Source E to explain your answer. (1+2 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Many candidates could use clues from Source E to identify a problem that might have made the Geneva Conference unable to achieve its aim of disarmament. Some candidates understood the source superficially and regarded the existence of many languages as the problem, this hampered performance.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to cite a relevant clue without due explanation. [max. 1]

L2 Able to cite a relevant clue with due explanation. [max. 2]



Problem [1 mark] : e.g.

- The Powers failed to work harmoniously.

Clues: e.g.

- The Powers sang the song in their own languages. - The organist urged them to sing it in one language. - The strength of peace was weak at that time.

Suggested Answer

The failure of powers to cooperate led to the failure of the Geneva Conference in disarmament.


According to source E, the organist hopes that different countries can “sing in one language”, however, powers are holding lyrics of different language, including the “British Version”, the “Japanese Version” and the “French Version”, showing that powers refuse to cooperate and fail the demand of the organist. As a result the Geneva Conference ended up as a failure in disarmament.

(a)(ii) Did the problem you identified in (i) arise in other collective security efforts in the period 1921-1932? Explain your answer with two examples from your own knowledge. (4 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Many candidates could use their own knowledge to discuss whether the problem identified in (a)(i) arose in other collective security efforts in the period 1921-1932. However, some candidates used examples beyond the period in question, such as the Paris Peace Conference (1919) and Munich Agreement (1938), thus scoring no marks.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to cite relevant examples, but marred by weak explanation. [max. 2] L2 Able to cite relevant examples with due explanation. [max. 4]


Examples: e.g.

- Washington Naval Conference (1921-1922) - Locarno Pact (1925) - Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) - London Naval Conference (1930)

Suggested Answer

Powers failed to cooperate in the Locarno Treaty and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. First, the Locarno Treaty in 1925 settled a fixed territory among Germany, France and Belgium, however it failed to arrange the territory of east Germany. This reflects that powers failed to compromise in the matter, they held diverse view on territorial arrangement. Second, the terms in the Kellogg-Briand Pact came with limitation, such that when a country was threatened, it retained its legal defensive rights. “Legal defensive rights” shows that powers were unable to achieve a consensus and the term led to misunderstandings and acted as excuses for future expansion.

(b) Dose Source E adequately explain why the Second World War broke out? Explain your answer with reference to Source E and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most of the candidates could explain why the Second World War broke out with reference to Source E and using their own knowledge. Relatively speaking, candidates were weak in elaborating on Source E. some answers merely produced a general account of events before the Second World War did not intend to explain them as causes of the War, thus scored no marks.

Marking Scheme

L1 Merely refer to the Source or cite relevant historical facts. [max. 4] L2 Refer to both the Source and cite relevant historical fasts; clearly state the viewpoint. [max. 6]


Source: e.g. - Collective security was not always effective. - Japan adopted a militaristic policy (clue: the Japanese representative was an army officer). Own knowledge: e.g.

- Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany adopted expansionist policies. - Democracies such as Britain and France adopted the appeasement policy. - The Great Depression of 1929 weakened the democratic countries and facilitated the rise of totalitarianism in countries such as Germany.

Suggested Answer

Source E fails to fully explain the reasons that led to the outbreak of WWII.


First, source E can show that the failure of collective security led to the outbreak of WWII. The cartoonist portrayed the peacemaker as an organist who demands every country to “Sing the song in one language”, yet different countries are holding lyrics of different language such as the “British Version” and the “French Version”, this implies that collective security was ineffective in deterring the outbreak of WWII.


Source E also shows that failure of powers to cooperate led to WWII. The singers in the cartoon symbolize different countries, they are holding different version of the “disarmament” song lists which shows that they hold different views and fail to achieve consensus in disarmament, they lacked cooperation which eventually led to the outbreak of WWII.


Meanwhile, the source also reflects that militarism in Japan caused WWII. In the cartoon, Japan is portrayed as a militarist who is wearing a military cap, this implies the rise of militarism in Japan, who actively initiated expansion which undermined world peace, ultimately causing WWII.


However, the Appeasement Policy, the Great Depression and the rise of Nazi Party also played a part in causing WWII.


According to my own knowledge, Britain and France implemented the Appeasement Policy, they compromised and sacrificed the interest of small nations in return for peace, which enhanced the aggression of totalitarian states. For instance, in March 1939, Hitler launched a full attack on Czech, leading to WWII.


At the same time, the Nazi Party, led by Hitler, rose to power in 1933, conscription was reestablished in 1935 and the Nazis invaded Poland in 1stSeptember 1939, starting WWII. Last but not least, the Great Depression in 1929 caused serious economic problems, for instance, 6 million German people became unemployed, the economic crisis led to the rise of extremist ideology, people advocated wars to resolve internal economic problems. In long term, the rise of totalitarianism also led to WWII.


It can therefore be seen that the source is inadequate in explaining the causes of WWII.

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