【2008】香港丨魯平V.S 港人治港



題目拆解


參考答案(中文版)

(a) 根據資料A, (i) 港人對香港前途有什麼期望?(1分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能指出當時港人對香港前途的期望。

評分準則

期望:

- 港人治港

參考答案

根據資料A,港人對香港前途持「港人治港」的期望,基於漫畫中的港人小心翼翼將「港人治港」的卡牌疊起,意味著港人希望落實這原則。

(ii) 中國怎樣回應你在題(i) 所指出的港人期望?(1分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能指出中國對港人期望的回應。能力稍遜的考生僅描述漫畫內容,因失分。

評分準則

例:

- 中國試圖阻止港人實現這個期望。

參考答案

中國反對港人的期望,並把它推倒。 根據資料A,代表中國政府的「魯平」向前一踢,把象徵港人期望的「港人治港」卡牌推倒,顯示資料認為中國反對並拒絕港人期望。

(b) 你認為漫畫家對中國持什麼態度?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

整體表現良好。大部分考生能參考資料並指出漫畫家對中國的態度。部分考生僅描述漫畫內容而沒有說明漫畫家對中國的態度。

評分準則

形式: 例:

- 不友善、諷刺、負面

L1 能引用相關線索,但沒有恰當的解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能引用相關線索,並作恰當解釋。 [最多2分] 例:

- 中國官員魯平被描繪成一個有欠公允的評判。 - 這個紙牌遊戲象徵香港人為建立「港人治港」所作出的努力,但卻被中共官員愚弄。

參考答案

漫畫家對中國持不滿、討厭、反對的負面態度。 漫畫家於資料A描述港人小心翼翼地疊上「港人治港」的卡牌,表示港人希望落實自治的願望,然而象徵中國的魯平卻毫不猶豫地向前一踢,將「港人治港」的卡牌推倒,顯示中國無利於實現港人願望,所以漫畫家持不滿的負面態度。 同時,資料A作者描繪中國代表魯平樣子奸詐,手持「評判」的紙張,意味著香港前途問題將由中國定斷,港人無權利參與其中,只能默默承受,因此,漫畫家持反對的負面態度。

(c) 從資料B推斷1991年直選結果的一項特徵。試參考資料B所示各議員的政治從屬,解釋你的答案。(1+2分)


考生表現

表現一般。能力較高的考生能根據議員的政治從屬,推斷直選結果的特徵,並能恰當運動資料。可是,部分考生未能運用資料作答。

評分準則

特徵: 例:

- 大部分直選立法局議員來自民主派。 - 大部分直選立法局議員在政治見解方面頗為相近。 - 大部分當選人有政黨背景。 線索: L1 未能恰當運用資料。 [最多1分] L2 能恰當運用資料。 [最多2分]


例:

- 十八名直選立法局議員中有十二名為港同盟或匯點成員。 - 十八名直選立法局議員中,十六名有政黨背景。

參考答案

1991年直選結果的特徵是民主派取得大多數議席。 參考資料B,1991年18個直選議席中有15個來自港同盟、民協或匯點政黨,顯示有5/6的議席由民主派別奪得,確實為一個特徵。

(d) 就有助解釋資料B所示的1991年直選結果而言,資料A有何用處及局限?試參考資料,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(6分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。只有少數考生能指出資料A在解釋資料B所示的1991年直選結果上的用處及局限。大部分考生僅描述資料A或資料B的內容,或長篇描述20世紀下半葉的發展,這並非題目所問。部分考生更把討論焦點放在1991年直選的影響,其答案與問題無關。

評分準則

L1 答案片面:僅討論資料的用處局限。 [最多3分] L2 答案全面:討論資料的用處局限。 [最多6分]

考生可能考慮的「直選結果」:

例:

- 以華人為主 - 有政黨背景 - 以民主派為主

用處:

例:

- 1980年代,部分港人已懷疑北京當局實行「港人治港」政策的誠意。他們希望立法局內能有民主派議員代表他們。

局限: 例:

- 六四事件加劇了港人對前途的憂慮。政治民主化被認為是保障前途的一個方法。 - 自1980年代開始,港人因為區議會的成立和回歸臨近等因素而逐漸提高對民主的素求。 - 民主派的政綱能回應當時港人的需要。

參考答案

資料能夠反映本地因素導致1991年直選結果。 參考資料A,漫畫中的港人小心翼翼地疊起「港人治港」的卡牌,意味著港人希望香港將來實現自治,由香港人自己管治自己。因此,港人於1991年立法局選舉中投票民主派別,期待香港實現民主。 資料能夠反映中國因素導致1991年直選結果。 漫畫家於資料A中描繪中國代表魯平奸詐無比,不但手持「評判」紙張,表示香港前途問由中國定斷,港人無權參與其中;而且他向前一踢,將「港人治港」的卡牌推倒,反映中國無意於落實香港自治。為抵抗中國政權干預,港人於1991年立法局選舉中投選民主派別,亦因此而來。 然而,資料卻仍有不少局限。 就我所知,隨著港英政府落實免費教育政策,港人知識水平提高,他們樂於追求自由、平等、民主等核心價值,所以於選舉傾向於支持民主派別候選人,造就1991年直選結果出現。 而且,資料未能反映中國政局影響1991年選舉結果,如1989年發生六四事件,中國政府武力鎮壓民運人仕,讓人害怕回歸中共政權後以同樣手段威迫,於是在1991年選舉中投出民主派別候選人,為選民爭取權益。 最後,基於1984年中英雙方簽訂《中英聯合聲明》,確定香港於1997年回歸中國。往後港督上任後積極推動民主化改革,深受教育的港人自然於選舉中投選民主派別,造就1991年選舉結果出現。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) According to Source A, (i) what was the Hong Kong people’s wish for the future of Hong Kong? (1 mark)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to point out the Hong Kong people’s wish for the future of Hong Kong at the time.

Marking Scheme

Wish:

Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong [1 mark]

Suggested Answer

According to source A, Hong Kong people wished for “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong”, in the cartoon, the man representing Hong Kong people carefully stacks up the cards of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong”, indicating that Hong Kong people wished to realize such principle.

(ii) How did China react to the wish of the Hong Kong people you identified in (i)? (1 mark)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to point out China’s reaction to the Hong Kong people’s wish. The weak candidates only described the cartoon, thus losing marks.

Marking Scheme

e.g.

- China tried to prevent Hong Kong people from realising their wish. [1 mark]

Suggested Answer

China is against Hong Kong people’s wish and attempted to destroy it. According to source A, Lu Pin who represents the Chinese government knocks down the house of cards that symbolizes Hong Kong people’s wish of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong”, the source implies that China was against and rejected Hong Kong people’s wish.

(b) What, in your opinion, was he cartoonist’s attitude towards China? Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (3 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Generally speaking, performance was good. Most candidates were able to point out the attitude of the cartoonist in the Source. However, some candidates merely described the cartoon without identifying the cartoonist’s attitude to China.

Marking Scheme

Attitude [1 mark] : e.g.

- unfriendly, satirical, negative

L1 Able to cite relevant clues without due explanation. [max. 1] L2 Able to cite relevant clues with due explanation. [max. 2]


e.g.

- The Chinese official Lu Ping was depicted as a biased adjudicator. - The card game symbolised Hong Kong people’s efforts to build up ‘Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong’, but it was tricked by the Chinese official.

Suggested Answer

The cartoonist holds a dissatisfied, resentful and antagonized negative attitude towards China. In source A, the cartoonist portrays that Hong Kong people is carefully stacking up the cards of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong”, meaning that Hong Kong people hoped to realize self-ruling. However, Lu Pin, who symbolizes the Chinese government, knocks down and destroys the house of cards of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong”, showing that China refused to realize Hong Kong people’s wish, hence the cartoonist holds a dissatisfied negative attitude. Meanwhile, Lu Pin in source A is portrayed as a cunning man, who is holding the “adjudicator” board, implying that the future of Hong Kong will be determined by China, Hong Kong people would not be involved and could only passively accept the result. Therefore, the cartoonist holds a negative attitude of resentment.

(c) Infer from Source B one characteristic of the result of the 1991 direct election. Explain your answer with reference to the members’ political affiliations as shown in Source B. (1+2 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was average. The more competent candidates were able to infer, with due reference to the Source, on characteristic of the direct election result based on the members’ political affiliations. However, some candidates did not answer with reference to the Source.

Marking Scheme

Characteristic [1 mark] :

e.g.

- Most of the directly elected Legislative Council members were democrats. - Most of the directly elected Legislative Council members were homogeneous in their political outlook. - Most of the seats were won by candidates with political affiliations. L1 Fail to make due reference to the Source. [max. 1] L2 Able to make due reference to the Source. [max. 2]

Clues:

e.g.

- Fourteen out of the eighteen directly elected Legislative Council members were affiliated to democratic bodies like UDHK and MP. - Sixteen out of the eighteen directly elected Legislative Council members had political affiliations.


Suggested Answer

The characteristic of the result of the 1991 direct election is that most of the directly elected Legislative Council members are democrats.



According to Source B, fourteen out of the eighteen directly elected Legislative Council members were affiliated to democratic bodies like UDHK and MP. Also, sixteen out of the eighteen directly elected Legislative Council members had political affiliations. This reflects that democrats take up a majority of seats in 1991 direct election is one of the characteristics.


(d) What are the usefulness and limitations of Source A in helping you explain the result of the 1991 direct election as shown in Source B? Explain your answer with reference to the Sources, and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was poor. Only a handful candidates were able to point out the usefulness and limitations of Source A in explaining the direct election result in 1991 as shown in Source B. most candidates merely described Source A and B, or described developments in the second half of the 20thcentury, both being irrelevant to the question. Some candidates even wrongly focused on the effect of the 1991 election.

Marking Scheme

L1 Lopsided: discussing either usefulness or limitations of the sources. [max. 3] L2 Comprehensive: discussing both usefulness and limitations. [max. 6]


‘Direct election result’ that candidates may consider; e.g.

- primarily Chinese - most of them had political affiliations - most of them were democrats Usefulness: e.g.

- Back to the 1980s, some Hong Kong people were already doubtful of Beijing’s sincerity in carrying out the ‘Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong’ policy. They would like to have the Democrats as Legislative Council members to represent them. Limitations: e.g.

- The June Fourth incident intensified the Hong Kong people’s anxiety about their future. Political democratization was considered a means to safeguard their future. - Starting from the 1980s, Hong Kong people became more eager for democracy as a result of the establishment of District Council, the looming issue of reunification with China, etc. - The democrats’ election platforms echoed the needs of the Hong Kong people at that time.

Suggested Answer

The sources are useful in explaining the local factors leading to the result of the 1991 direct election. According to source A, the Hong Kong people is carefully stacking up the house of cards of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong” meaning that Hong Kong people wished to achieve self-ruling in the future so that Hong Kong people could rule themselves. Hence, Hong Kong people voted for the democrats in the 1991 direct election so as to realize democracy in Hong Kong. The sources can also explain the Chinese factors leading to the election result in 1991. Lu Pin is portrayed as a cunning man in source A, he is holding the “adjudicator” board, meaning that the future of Hong Kong would be determined by China, Hong Kong people were excluded from the process of negotiation. Moreover, Lu Pin knocks down the house of cards of “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong”, reflecting that China did not intend to realize self-ruling in Hong Kong. Hence, Hong Kong people voted for the democrats in the 1991 election against the intervention of Chinese government. However, the sources fail to reflect some other factors. According to my own knowledge, as the British government implemented the compulsory education policy, the education level of Hong Kong people increased, they pursued core values such as freedom, equality and democracy, hence they were prone to vote for democrats in the 1991 direct election. Moreover, the sources failed to reflect the political situation in China which  affected the result of the 1991 election. For instance, in the June-Fourth Incident in 1989, the Chinese government forcibly suppressed the democratic movement, Hong Kong people were fear that they would face the same fate after handover to China, hence they voted for the democrats in 1991 election to fight for their rights. Last but not least, the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed in 1984, Hong Kong would be handover to China in 1997, the British governors advocated democratic reforms afterwards, hence the educated Hong Kong people were prone to support democrats in the 1991 election.

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