【2008】二戰丨《互不侵犯協定》



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)


(a) 寫出該條約的名稱。試引用資料D一項線索,支持你的答案。(1+1分)


考生表現

表現一般。部分考生能根據資料指出該條約為德蘇互不侵犯條約。不過,不少考生卻誤把史太林看成是墨索里尼,因而錯誤理解成鋼鐵條約,未能取得任何分數。

評分準則

名稱: - 德蘇互不侵犯條約 線索: 例:

- 史太林與希特拉結婚。 - 漫畫中有納悶黨和蘇聯共產黨的黨徽。

參考答案

條約的名稱為《互不侵犯條約》。 資料D的漫畫出於1939年,而內容關於一個神情形似希特拉和史太林的男人進行婚禮,顯示雙方關係友好,這確實跟《互不侵犯條約》的主張相似。

(b) 你認為漫畫家對該兩國關係的前景持什麼看法?試引用資料D兩項線索,解釋你的答案。(5分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能參考資料並指出漫畫家的看法。少數考生只引用線索,卻未加以解釋,以致失分。

評分準則

L1 兩個線索但沒有恰當解釋一個線索有恰當解釋。 [最多2分]

L2 兩個線索有恰當解釋。 [最多4分]



看法: 例:

- 關係不會長久


線索:

例:

- 「真想知道這蜜月會維持多久」這個諷刺標題意荐著該關係只會維持很短的時間。

- 漫畫家將關係描繪成一段同性婚姻,而同性婚姻對於1930年代的很多人來說並非一種堅固的結合。

參考答案

漫畫家認為兩國的友好關係並不會持久。 參考資料D,漫畫的下方附上「真想知道這蜜月會維持多久」字句,透過反問修辭諷刺德、蘇友好關係一迅即逝,不會持維持很久。 而且,漫畫家在資料D中描述希特拉跟史太林進行婚禮,而當時同性婚姻不受看好,更受盡千夫所指,意味著漫畫家認為德、蘇關係脆弱,並不持久。

(c) 1939-1945年間的發展,能否支持你在題(b) 所述漫畫家的看法?試就你所知,解釋你的答案。(5分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。大部分考生能緊扣題(b) 所指的看法作答。不過,大部分考生未有留意題目所示的期限,只以1943年德蘇交戰一事作答,因而失分。部分考生確能以1941至1945年兩國關係的轉變而作出討論,但為數不多。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能提供相關史實為據。 [最多1分] L2 僅涵蓋1939-1941年間的發展,能以相關史實為據。 [最多3分] L3 涵蓋1939-1945年間的發展,能以相關史實為據,解釋清楚。 [最多5分] 例:

- 1939至1941年間是「蜜月期」,當時蘇聯並未加入攻打德國。

- 然而,蜜月期僅維持兩年,兩國便於1941年爆發戰事。 - 1941至1945年間兩國是交戰國。戰爭結束時,蘇聯與其他國家一同佔領了德國。

參考答案

1939-1945年的發展能夠支持漫畫家的看法。 就我所知,德國於1939年跟蘇聯瓜分波蘭,並開啟第二次世界大戰。然而,於戰爭初期德國主力跟英、法等西歐國家對壘,未有向東方擴展跡象,符合漫畫家認為德、蘇關係將會維持短暫友好的見解。 而且,隨著戰事發展,德國於1942年發動「巴巴羅薩作戰計劃」突襲蘇聯,並為德蘇戰爭揭開序幕,顯示雙方關係破裂,雙方互相攻擊。這亦符合漫畫家認為德、蘇友好關係不會持久的看法。 更甚,因應戰事節節敗退,德國於1945年宣告投降。戰後按《波茨坦協定》規定蘇聯跟英、美、法佔領德國,彼此關係不如1939年般友好,確實如漫畫家所指德、蘇關係不會維持很久的看法。

參考答案(英文版)


(a) Name the treaty. Cite one clue from Source D to support your answer. (1+1 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. Some candidates were able to use clues from the Source to point out that the treaty’s name was the Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact. However, quite a number of candidates mistook the Stalin figure in the cartoon for Mussolini, hence mistaking the treaty as the Pact of Steel, and scoring no marks.

Marking Scheme

Name [1 mark] : - Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Clue [1 mark] : e.g.

- Stalin and Hitler married each other. - There were emblems of the Nazi Party and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Suggested Answer

It is the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. Source D shows that the cartoon was published in 1939 and it portrays that a man who looks like Hitler is getting married with another man who looks like Stalin, this implies that they are on good terms, which matches the purpose of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.

(b) What, in your opinion, was the cartoonist’s view of the prospect of the relationship between the two countries? Explain your answer with two clues from Source D. (5 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to identify the cartoonist’s view from the Source. A handful of candidates merely mentioned the clues evident in the cartoon without giving any explanation, hence losing marks.

Marking Scheme

L1 Two clues without due explanation or one clue with due explanation. [max. 2]

L2 Two clues with due explanation. [max. 4]



View [1 mark] : e.g.

- The relationship would not last long. Clues: e.g.

- The sarcastic caption “Wonder how long the honeymoon will last?” suggested that the relationship would be a short-term one. - The cartoonist depicted the relationship as a gay marriage, which to many people in the 1930s was not a strong bond.

Suggested Answer

The cartoonist believes that the good relation between the two countries would not last long. According to source D, the caption of the cartoon is “Wonder How Long the Honeymoon Will Last?”, the cartoonist satirizes the fragile relationship between Germany and the USSR through a rhetorical question, the cartoonist believes that their relation would not last long. Furthermore, source D shows that Hitler and Stalin are getting married, however same-sex marriage was not welcomed at the time and was discriminated against, hence the cartoonist deems that the relation between Germany and the USSR was fragile and could not last.

(c) Did the developments in the period 1939-1945 support the cartoonist’s view you identified in (b)? Explain your answer using your own knowledge. (5 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was poor. While most candidates were able to refer to the view they identified in Q3.(b), they were not always aware of the time fane set in the question, and lost marks by mentioning only the 1943 battle between Germany and the USSR. Some candidates were able to produce answers on the changing relationship between the two powers in the period 1941 to 1945, but such answers were rare.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to provide relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 1] L2 Only cover the period 1939-1941, supported by relevant historical facts. [max. 3] L3 Cover the period 1939-1945, supported by relevant historical facts with clear explanations. [max. 5] e.g.

- There was “honeymoon” between 1939 and 1941, during which the Soviet Union did not join the fight against Germany. - However, the honeymoon only lasted for two years, and war broke out between the two countries in 1941. - The two countries were belligerents from 1941 to 1945. By the end of the War the USSR joined hand with other powers to occupy Germany.

Suggested Answer

The developments in the period 1939-1945 support the cartoonist’s view. According to my own knowledge, Germany divided Poland with USSR in 1939 and initiated WWII. However, the war did not extend to the east initially, the war was mainly between Germany and Britain and France, which matches the cartoonist’s view that Germany remained on good terms with USSR for a short period of time. Moreover, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa to attack USSR in 1942 and started the war between Germany and USSR, they became hostile to each other and fought against each other. This fulfils the cartoonist’s view that the good relation between Germany and USSR would not last long. Furthermore, Germany was defeated and surrendered in 1945. The post-war Potsdam Conference divided Germany into four occupant zones that were occupied by Britain, the US, France and the USSR, their relation was worse than that in 1939, matching the cartoonist’s view that the good relation between Germany and the USSR would not last long.

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