L1 參考答案並指出一項努力。 [最多2分] L2 參考資料並指出兩項或以上努力。 [最多3分]
- 使用疫苗，例如1967年開始的全球疫苗接種計劃。 - 協調各國行動，例如與美、俄討論有關處理庫存天花病毒的措施。
第一，世衛設立計劃來處理天花問題。 參考資料E，世衛於1967年「開展了一個全球疫苗計劃」，為受影響地區國民注射疫苗，減低他們患上天花病毒的機會，實為她的努力。 第二，世衛設立系統監察天花病毒情況。 參考資料E，配合疫苗計劃開展，世衛於1967年同時「設立了一個監察系統」，檢視全球各地天花的情況，防患未然，顯然她的努力。 第三，世衛作出呼籲處理天花問題。 參考資料E，隨著天花病毒受到控制，世衛致力於向世界強國作出呼籲，希望她們「銷毀天花病毒」，以免病菌再度擴展於社會，反映她所作的努力。
L1 僅指出「有成效」或「無成效」一面；答案含糊，亦未能恰當引用資料。 [最多2分] L2 能兼顧「有成效」及「無成效」兩項；解釋清楚，亦能恰當引用資料。 [最多4分]
有成效 例：疫苗接種計劃取得成功，天花於1980年絕跡。 沒有成效 例：聯合國未能勸服美、俄銷毀庫存病毒。
該等努力取大成效。 參考資料E，1950年代時「全球每半約有五千萬宗天花病例發生」，但隨著世衛致力於對抗天花病毒，到1967年時「該數字下降到一千萬至一千五百萬左右」，災情減少1/5，顯示世衛的努力取得成效。 更甚，隨著世衛於1960年代開展疫苗計劃和監察系統的努力，到1980年代時「世衛宣布天花在全球絕跡」，表示天花病毒經已受控，而且不會再危害於人類健康，當然是取得成效。 然而，資料E指超級強國如「美國和蘇聯／俄國仍然保留天花病毒作研究及醫學用途」，拒絕銷毀病毒，顯示天花依然存在於世界上，人類健康仍然受到威脅，所以成效有有限。
L1 答案片面，僅依據資料／引用相關史實。 [最多2／3分] L2 答案全面，既依據資料亦引用相關史實。 [最多5分]
- 美、蘇均不願意銷毀庫存病毒 個人所知 例：
- 全球化導致交通頻繁，來自不同國家的人接觸增加，使病毒得以散播。 - 污染問題不斷惡化，抵消了改善健康的努力。 - 藥廠的專制權令藥物價格高企，貧民大眾難以負擔。
參考資料E，國家分歧阻礙國際改善健康，就算世衛致力於處理天花問題，不過資料指出「美國和蘇聯／俄國仍然保留該病毒作研究及醫學用途」，大國拒絕銷毀病毒，人類健康依然受到威脅，確實為阻礙。 就我所知，全球化亦阻礙國際改善健康，隨著交通網路改善，人類接觸愈見頻繁，這樣有利於病毒傳播，如1997年禽流感正好一例，反映交通技術改良、科技便利人類生活的同時亦危害於人類健康。 此外，污染問題亦阻礙國際改善健康，全球污染問題愈見嚴重，二氧化碳排放愈見增高。污染不但破壞環境，而且滋長病毒散播，威脅著人類健康。 最後，藥物專利權亦阻礙國際改善健康。藥廠為求賺取利潤，研發新型藥物就申請專利權，並提高價格牟利。這樣的制度令不少病人未能得到適切治療，如癌症藥物動軌就數十萬元，病者難以負擔最終失去治療最佳時機。
(a) What efforts were made by the WHO in dealing with smallpox? Support your answer with reference to Source E. (3 marks)
Most candidates were able to identify the efforts made by the World Health Organization to deal with smallpox. However, some of them merely copied from the source without paraphrasing.
L1 Identify one effort with due reference to the Source. [max. 2] L2 Identify two or more efforts with due reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- Introducing vaccinations, such as the global programme of vaccination started in 1967. - Providing liaison with different countries, such as having discussion with the US and Russia regarding the measures to deal with the remaining smallpox virus.
First, the WHO started a programme to deal with smallpox. According to source E, the WHO “started a global programme of vaccination” in 1967 to provide vaccines for people in affected areas, it made effort in preventing the spread of smallpox. Second, the WHO set up a system to monitor the situation of smallpox. According to source E, the WHO set up a “monitoring system” in 1967 along with the vaccination programme to monitor the situation of smallpox around the globe, showing the WHO’s effort in prevention of smallpox. Third, the WHO persuaded superpowers to deal with smallpox. According to source E, as smallpox went under control, the WHO tried to persuade superpowers to destroy “remaining stocks of smallpox virus” to prevent the virus from spreading in society again, showing its effort in raising awareness in dealing with smallpox.
(b) With reference to Source E, how successful were such efforts? (4 marks)
Performance was average. The better candidates were able to produce a balanced answer by stating both the successes and limitations of WHO’s efforts. However, many merely mentioned one of these in their answers.
L1 Only on ‘successful’ or ‘not successful’; vague answer and unable to make due reference to the Source. [max. 2] L2 Covers both ‘successful’ and ‘not successful’; clear explanation, and able to make due reference to the Source. [max. 4] Successful: e.g.
- The vaccination programme was successful and there was the elimination of smallpox in 1980.
Not successful: e.g.
- The UN failed to convince the US and Russia to destroy the remaining virus.
The efforts of the WHO was largely successful. According to source E, “about 50 million cases of smallpox were reported in the world each year” in the 1950s, but as the WHO made effort to eliminate smallpox virus, “the figure fell to about 10-15 million” in 1967, cases of infection decreased to one-fifth of the 1950s level, indicating that the WHO was successful. Moreover, as the WHO initiated a programme of vaccination and a monitoring system, the WHO “declared that smallpox had been eliminated globally” in 1980s, meaning that smallpox virus went under control and would no longer pose threat to human health, the WHO was successful. However, source E states that superpowers such as the US and the USSR “still retained smallpox virus for research and medical purposes”, they refused to destroy the virus, implying that smallpox virus still exist in the world, which may threaten public health in the future, hence the effort of the WHO was not fully successful.
(c) What factors undermined the success of international efforts towards health improvements in the second half of the 20th century? Explain your answer with reference to Source E and using your own knowledge. (5 marks)
Some candidates attempting the English version had difficulty in understanding the word ‘undermine’ and talked about factors which promoted international cooperation. It was not required by the question. Candidates who correctly understood the question generally performed well, though their answers tended to be lopsided to the source or their own knowledge.
L1 A lopsided answer, merely referring to the Source/ own knowledge. [max. 2/3] L2 A comprehensive answer referring to both the Source and own knowledge. [max. 5] Source: e.g.
- Both the US and Soviet Union were unwilling to destroy the remaining virus. Own knowledge e.g.
- Globalization led to frequent travels and interaction of the people from different countries. It facilitated the spread of diseases. - Worsening pollution problems counterbalance efforts at health improvements. - Patents granted to the pharmaceutical companies make the drug price so high that such drugs are inaccessible to the poor.
According to source E, the division among countries undermined the success of international efforts towards health improvements. Although the WHO made effort in dealing with smallpox, the source points out that “USSR/ Russia still retained smallpox virus for research and medical purposes”, superpowers refused to destroy the virus, human health was still under threats, obstacles in improving public health still existed. According to my own knowledge, globalization also undermined the success of international efforts towards health improvements. As transportation network improved, contacts between people became more frequent, which was favourable to the spread of virus. For instance, the outbreak of Avian Influenza in 1997 showed that the improvement in public transport and technology brought convenience to human but at the same time posing threats to public health. Moreover, pollution problem undermined the success of international efforts towards health improvements as well. Pollution became more and more serious around the world, the emission of carbon dioxide hugely increased. Pollution not only destroy the environment, but also promoted the spread of virus which threatened human health. Last but not least, drug patent undermined international efforts in improving health. Pharmaceutical companies were eager to increase profit, they applied for drug patent once they invented a new drug and increase the price of the drug for profit. This deprived patients from accessing to an affordable treatment, for instance drugs in treating cancer could cost up to few hundred thousands, impoverished patients could hardly afford the fee and might miss the best chance to cure the disease.