【2006SP】日本丨軍國主義



題目拆解



參考答案(中文版)

(a) 指出1926-1934年間日本的總人口及工人實際收入變化的趨勢。試從資料B引用相關證據支持你的答案。(2+2分)


評分準則

L1 能指出其中一方面的趨勢,並有相關證據支持。 [最多2分] L2 能指出兩方面的趨勢,並有相關證據支持。 [最多4分]

例:

- 總人口:持續增長 (由1926年的59,700,000人升至1934年的69,300,000人) - 工人實際收入:持續下降 (指數由1926年的100跌至1934年的44)

參考答案

資料反映總人口上升及實際收入下降的趨勢。 參考資料B,總人口由1926至1934年間持續上升,分別由1926年的59,700,000人增加至1934年的69,300,000人,近10年期間全國人口增幅達10,000,000人,顯示人口持續增長的趨勢。 然而,人口上升的同時工人薪金卻持續減少,資料B指出1926年的工人實際收入指數為100。然而,到了1934年時指數剩下44點,反映10年期間工人實際收入跌幅近56點,生活比過去更為艱難。

(b) 根據資料C作者的看法,日本政府當時面對哪些問題?(3分)


評分準則

L1 僅能指出一項問題,並嘗試用自己的文字作答。 [最多2分] L2 能指出兩項問題,並嘗試用自己的文字作答。 [最多3分]

例:

- 經濟衰退 - 反民主力量冒起 - 對政黨政治的挑戰

參考答案

第一,日本政府面對失去民心的問題。 參考資料C,人們日漸把「(經濟)衰退歸咎於政黨」,認為政黨政府沒有妥善發展日本經濟,為國民生活帶來負面影響,所以對「日本議會政府的價值產生懷疑」,對政府持不信任的態度,顯示當時政府面對民心失去的問題。 第二,日本政府面對軍國主義崛興的問題。 資料C作者指日本國內出現「反民主力量」,他們學習「意大利法西斯主義及德國納粹主義」,希望在日本建立「獨裁及軍國主義」政府,打倒政黨政治家,顯示當時政府面對軍國主義者的挑戰。

(c) 資料B及資料C能否充份反映1930年代日本對外擴張的原因?試根據資料B及C,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


評分準則

L1 只討論資料的用處或局限。 [最多4分] L2 答案全面,能兼論資料的用處及局限。 [最多7分]


用處: 例:

- 資料B顯示人口持續增長及工人實際收入持續減少,這為日本對外擴張提供有利的環境 - 資料C反映出,經濟衰退及極權主義在歐洲的冒起如何引致日本政黨政治的波落及軍國主義的冒起 局限: 例:

- 資料並有顯示導致日本在1930年代對外擴張的其他因素 (例:黷武傳統、對海外資源的渴求、日本的極端民族主義) - 資料只顯示直至1934年的情況


參考答案

資料未能充分反映1930年代日本對外擴張的原因。 參考資料B,經濟問題導致日本於1930年代對外擴張,資料B指出人口由1926年的59,700,000人增加至1934年的69,300,000人,但工人收入卻由1926年的100點下跌至1934年的44點,反映人口上升但經濟情況卻日漸惡劣。於此情況底下,日本為發展經濟而選擇對外擴張。 資料C指出當時日人認為「(經濟)衰退」是政黨政府的無能,更甚於對「議會政府的價值產生懷疑」,認為她不但未能改善國民生活,反而加重人民負擔,生活更趨慘淡。所以,國民轉而支持軍國主義者對外擴張政策,試圖改善生活狀況。 此外,資料C指出國際形勢的轉變,包括「意大利法西斯主義者及德國納粹主義的出現」,讓日本民眾眼界大開,希望藉極權主義解決日本當前問題,結果促成「反民主力量」崛與,「獨裁及軍國主義政策」主張對外發展,造就日本1930年代擴張的局面出現。 然而,資料卻存有不少局限。 雖然資料指出日本於1920年代所面對的問題,但卻欠全面。就我所知,1920年代日本出現多場經濟危機,包括關東大地震(1923)、銀行危機(1927)及經濟大衰退(1929),造成近300萬人的失業率。為推動國家發展,日本選擇於1930年代對外擴張。 而且,資料指出日本政黨部分問題,卻未能分析政黨政治發展。就我所知,自1918年原敬擔任文官首相開始,政黨發展就搖搖欲墜,不但1918至1932年間換閣達11次,而且1924年更被揭發違反《選舉法》的個案超過15000宗,政治家形象負面大失民心,促成軍國主義者上台並對外擴張。 最後,資料籠統反映國際形勢的轉變,卻沒有交代西方對日本的歧視態度。就我所知,西方國家自1920年代起多次箝制日本發展,包括1921-1922年華盛頓會議要求日本交還山東予中國,並限制其海軍發展,更甚於美國通過《排外法案》禁止日本人移民,日本為求挽回尊嚴於1930年代對外擴張。 所以,題目反映部分日本對外擴張因由,但欠全面討論。

參考答案(英文版)


(a) Identify the trends in the changes of Japan’s total population and its workers’ real income during the period 1926-1934. Support your answer with relevant clues from Source B. (2+2 marks)


Marking scheme

L1 able to identify trend in either one aspect, with relevant supporting evidence. [max. 2] L2 able to identify trend in both aspects and support with relevant supporting evidence. [max. 4] e.g.

- Total population: increasing (from 59,700,000 in 1926 to 69,300,000 in 1934) - Workers’ real income: decreasing (index from 100 in 1926 to 44 in 1934)

Suggested answer

Source B shows that there was an increase of total population and a decrease in worker’s real income in Japan. According to source B, the total population continuously rose from 1926 to 1934, from 59,700,000 in 1926 to 69,300,000 in 1934. There was a 10 million growth in population over the ten years, indicating that there was an upward trend in population. While population rose, the real wages of workers suffered from continuous decline. Source B shows that the real income index of workers was 100, but was decreased to 44 in 1934, implying that over the 10 years, there was a 56 decrease in real income index of workers, life was tougher than the past.

(b) According to the author of Source C, what were the problems faced by the Japanese government at the time? (3 marks)



Marking scheme

L1 able to identify only one problem and with attempt at paraphrasing. [max. 2] L2 able to identify two problems and with attempt at paraphrasing. [max. 3] e.g.

- economic depression; - rise of anti-democratic forces; - challenge to the party government.

Suggested answer

First, the Japanese government lost popularity and support from Japanese people. According to source C, people put “the blame for the [economic] depression feel on the parties”, they criticized the government of being incompetence in economic development, which brought about negative impacts to Japanese people. People began to “cast doubts” on “Japan’s parliamentary government”, they distrusted the government, showing that the Japanese government lost people’s support. Second, the Japanese government faced the problem of the rise of militarism. The author of source C states that “anti-democratic forces” emerged in Japan, they were influenced by “Fascists in Italy and the Nazis in Germany”, hoping to establish “authoritarian and militarist policies” against party politicians. Hence showing that challenges from militarists was another problem faced by the Japanese government.

(c) Do Sources B and C adequately reflect the reasons for Japan’s foreign expansion during the 1930s? Explain your answer with reference to Sources, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Marking scheme

L1 an answer confined to either usefulness or limitations of the Source. [max. 4] L2 comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations of the Source. [max. 7] Usefulness: e.g.

- Source B reflects the increasing population pressure and decreasing workers’ real income which would provide a favourable condition for Japan’s foreign expansion - Source C reflects how the economic depression and the emergence of totalitarianism in Europe led to the decline of party politics and the rise of militarism in Japan. Limitations: e.g.

- Sources do not show other factors that contributed to Japan’s foreign expansion in the specified period (e.g. militaristic tradition, desire for overseas resources, Japanese extreme nationalism) - Sources only show information up to 1934

Suggested answer

The sources inadequately reflect the reasons for Japan’s foreign expansion during the 1930s. According to source B, economic problems led to Japan’s foreign expansion. Source B shows that population increased from 59,700,000 in 1926 to 69,300,000 in 1934, yet workers’ real income index decreased from 100 in 1926 to 44 in 1934, which indicates there was a surging population but deteriorating economy. Under such circumstances, Japanese people had to  resort to foreign expansion to develop its economy. Source C states that Japanese people believed that “[economic] depression” was due to incompetence of party government, they even questioned the “worth of Japan’s parliamentary government”. People criticized the government not only of being incapable to improve people’s live, but also imposing a further burden on people. Lives were tough, therefore militarists’ foreign expansion policies gained people’s support, in the hope of improving the standard of living of people. Other than that, source C shows the changes in international balance of power, including the “emergence of the Fascists in Italy and the Nazis in Germany” which was appealing to Japanese people and people started to turn to authoritarianism to solve social problems. This resulted in the “rise of anti-democratic forces”, “authoritarian and militarist policies” advocated foreign expansion, leading to Japan’s foreign expansion during 1930s. However, there are limitations in the sources that fail to reflect the reasons for Japan’s foreign expansion. Although the sources state the problems faced by Japan during 1920s, they were incomprehensive. According to my own knowledge, several economic crisis emerged in 1920s, including Great Kantō earthquakein 1923, Shōwa Financial Crisisin 1927 and the Great Depression in 1929, around 3 million Japanese lost their jobs during this period. In order to promote national development, Japan initiated foreign expansion during 1930s. Moreover, although the sources reflect the problems of Japanese parties, they fail to analyse the development of party politics. According to my own knowledge, ever since Hara Takashi became the Prime Minister in 1918, development of party politics faced severe challenges. From 1918 to 1932, the cabinet was replaced for 11 times, there were even more than 15000 reported cases of breaking the “Election Law” in 1924. A negative impression of politicians was formed, which facilitated militarists in seizing power who then initiated foreign expansions. Last but not least, the sources only generally state the changes in international balance of power, but leaving out the discriminatory attitude of the West towards Japan. According to my own knowledge, Western countries suppressed Japan’s development since 1920s, for instance, Japan was required to handover ShanDong to China during the Washington Conference in 1921 to 1922 and its naval development was limited, the USA even passed the Immigration Act of 1924, banning immigrants from Japan. In order to regain national glory, Japan initiated foreign expansion during 1930s. All in all, although the sources reflect some reasons of Japan’s foreign expansion, they were incomprehensive.

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