L1 僅能指出兩項變化，而未有引用相關線索支持答案或僅指出一項變化，而能夠引用相關線索支持答案。 [最多2分]
L2 能指出兩項變化，並引用相關線索支持答案。 [最多4分]
L1 片面︰僅討論資料的用處或局限。 [最多4分]
L2 全面︰涵蓋用處和局限。 [最多7分]
(a) With reference to Source A, identify two causes for changes in the colonial administration of Hong Kong after the Second World War. (2 marks)
Most candidates were able to point out two causes for changes in the colonial administration of Hong Kong after the Second World War.
- Birth of the People’s Republic of China
- Trend of anti-colonialism in the world ran high
Anti-colonialism emerged in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) which led to changes in the colonial administration of Hong Kong.
According to source A, the “birth of the People’s Republic of China” forced the colonial government “to introduce drastic changes” after WWII, giving up previous approaches in administration in response to the changing political environment. Therefore the birth of PRC caused changes in colonial administration of Hong Kong after WWII.
Meanwhile, source A also states that there was a “rising tide of global anti-colonialism”, which pushed the colonial government to decentralize its power by allowing local Chinese to take part in administration, and to bring about administrative changes so as to remain in power. Prevalence of anti-colonialism hence also gave rise to changes in post-war colonial administration.
(b) With reference to Source B, identify two changes in the Legislative Council in the period 1938-1996. Cite two clues from Source B to support your answer. (2+2 marks)
Most candidates were able to point out two changes in the Legislative Council in the period 1938-1996, and supported their answers with clues from the source. Some weaker candidates merely cited the data without summarizing the changes, and were thus awarded no marks.
L1 Identify two changes without citing relevant clues or identify one change supported by relevant clue. [max. 2]
L2 Identify two changes supported by relevant clues. [max. 4]
- The number of Chinese members continuously increased
- The number of seats for unofficial members increased continually while that for official members decreased continually
- Before 1986, all members were appointed; after 1986, elected members increased gradually
- Able to cite relevant figures
- Able to use hints such as ‘appointed’ and ‘elected’ from the table
The first change shown in source B is the continuous increase of Chinese members in the Legislative Council.
In 1938, there were only 3 Chinese legislators out of 17, which was far less than half of the total number of legislators. In 1996, all 60 members of the Legislative Council were Chinese. From the above data, it can be seen that the number of Chinese legislators increased from 3 in 1938 to all 60 in 1996, there was a continuous increase of Chinese legislators.
The second change is the way of selecting legislators, which changed from appointment to election.
Source B shows that in 1938, all 17 official and unofficial members of the Legislative Council was appointed. However in 1996, all 60 legislators were elected . There was a change of method in selecting legislators from 1938 to 1996, from appointment to election.
(c) What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources A and B in reflecting the participation of local Chinese in the colonial administration of Hong Kong up to 1997? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
Most candidates were able to point out the usefulness and limitations of the sources, but excellent answers were rare. Quite many candidates merely cited information from the source without discussing how it was related to the Chinese participation in Hong Kong’s colonial administration. Moreover, many candidates failed to cite concrete example when discussing limitations. Weaker candidates misunderstood the question as requiring an explanation of the local Chinese participation in Hong Kong’s colonial administration.
L1 Lopsided: discussing either usefulness or limitations of the sources. [max. 4]
L2 Comprehensive: discussing both usefulness and limitations. [max. 7]
- Source A: the number of Administrative Officers who were Chinese increased gradually after 1950
- Source B: the number of Chinese members in the Legislative Council increased continually in the period 1938-1996
- lack concrete example: Chinese members in the Legislative and Executive Councils such as Ho Kai, Shouson Chow, Sze-Yuen Chung, and Lydia Dunn.
- Chinese organizations such as Tung Wah Hospital, Po Leung Kuk and Chinese General Chamber of Commerce formed part of the consultation framework of the government.
- Chinese political groups were set up (e.g. The Democratic Party of Hong Kong and The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB)).
Usefulness of the sources will first be discussed.
Source A states that colonial government “began to implement the policy of localizing the civil service in the late 1940s”, local Chinese took part in colonial administration as “Administrative Officers”. Until 1978, 44.4% of Administrative Officers were Chinese, indicating that Chinese participated in colonial rule as Administrative Officers.
Source B shows that the number of Chinese legislator was 3 in 1938, which was far less than half of the total number of legislators. However in 1996, all 60 members of the Legislation Council were Chinese, there was a 20 times increase. This shows that Chinese started to take part in colonial administration by joining the Legislative Council, so as to voice out their concerns and demands.
Limitations of the sources will be discussed below.
According to my knowledge, Heung Yee Kuk was established in 1926, allowing indigenous inhabitants to voice out their opinion to the colonial government, Heung Yee Kuk facilitated communication between them. Heung Yee Kuk also acted as an indirect channel for Chinese to participate in colonial administration.
Meanwhile, Chinese elites such as Ho Kai and Chou Shouson was invited to join the government because of their high level of education and social status. They not only assisted colonial government in administration, but also strived for better living standard of the locals, showing that Chinese elites also took part in colonial administration.
Moreover, local Chinese joined governmental organizations such as the Regional Council and Executive Council to give advice to the colonial government and to facilitate cooperation between the government and locals, which contributed to stable social development. Hence local Chinese participated in colonial administration by joining Regional Council and Executive Council.
Local Chinese also organized political parties such as Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong, Meeting Point and The United Democrats of Hong Kong, through elections and demonstrations, they aimed to influence government policies, which is also regarded as Chinese participation in colonial administration.
Last but not least, local Chinese not only took up the position as Administrative Officers, some Chinese elites even became high-ranking civil servants, for instance, Anson Chan and Donald Tsang were appointed asChief Secretary and Financial Secretary respectively, which was also a way to take part in colonial adminstration.