【2006】香港丨華人政治參與度



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)


(a) 參考資料A,指出香港殖民地管治在第二次世界大戰出現轉變的兩項原因。(2分)



考生表現

大部分考生能指出導致第二次世界大戰後香港殖民地管治轉變的兩項原因。

評分準則

香港殖民管治轉變的兩項原因(1+1分):

- 中華人民共和國的誕生

- 世界反殖民主義潮流的高漲

參考答案

中國人民共和國和反殖民主義導致香港殖民地管治出現轉變。

資料A指因為「中華人民共和國的誕生」,迫使第二次世界大戰的港英政府「不能不改變主張」,放棄戰前各種管治華人的手段,並作出合適的改變以回應當時的政治環境,故中華人民共和國的誕生導致香港殖民管治於二戰後出現轉變。

同時,資料A指因為「世界反殖民地主義潮流的高漲」導致港英政府於二戰後逐步下放權力,讓華人參與政治管理,作出管治上的轉變以維持其政權,故「世界反殖民主義」也導致香港殖民管治於二戰後出現轉變。

(b) 參考資料B,指出1938-1996年間立法局的兩項變化。並從資料B引用兩項線索,支持你的答案。(2+2分)



考生表現

大多數考生均能指出1938-1996年間立法局的兩項變化,並從資料中引用相關線索其答案。惟少數表現較差的考生僅抄錄有關數據而未有指明變化,因而未能得分。

評分準則

L1 僅能指出兩項變化,而未有引用相關線索支持答案或僅指出一項變化,而能夠引用相關線索支持答案。 [最多2分]

L2 能指出兩項變化,並引用相關線索支持答案。 [最多4分]



變化

例︰

- 華人議員人數不斷增加。

- 非官守議席數目不斷增加,官守議席數目則不斷減少。

- 1986年以前,全部議員皆為委任,1986年後則逐步由選舉產生。

線索

例︰

- 能適當引用相關數字。

- 能適當使用表格上「委任」、「選舉產生」等提示。

參考答案

第一項轉變是華人議員不斷地提升。

資料B的數據指出1938年時華人議員只得3個,並佔17個中的3個,不足一半,但至1996年時華人議員共有60個,共佔全體60個議員的全部。從上述數據分析顯示華人議員數目得以由1938年比例不足一般的3人上升至1996年佔全體的60人,華人議員不斷提升。

第二項轉變是議員產生方法由委任制轉變為選舉制。

資料B的數據指出1938年時不論官守議員還是非官守議員,總數17個議員皆由委任產生,但至1996年由60名議員全部均由選舉產生。從此數據分析顯示議員產成方式由1938年時的委任制改變成1996年時的選舉制,實為一變化。

(c) 就反映直至1997年本地華人參與香港殖民地管治而言,資料A及B有何用處及局限?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)



考生表現

大多數考生能在答案中指出資料的用處及局限,但良好的答案不多。不少考生只抄錄資料,而未有說明與本地華人參與香港殖民地管治的關係。另外,很多考生未能以具體史例說明資料的局限。表現較差的考生更誤解題旨,以本地華人參與香港殖民管治的原因充數。

評分準則

L1 片面︰僅討論資料的用處或局限。 [最多4分]

L2 全面︰涵蓋用處和局限。 [最多7分]



用處

例︰

- 資料A︰1950年後香港華人政務官人數逐漸增加。

- 資料B︰1938-1996年間,立法局華人議員數目不斷增加。

局限

例︰

- 欠缺具體例子,如立法局、行政局華人議員何啟、周壽臣、鍾士元、鄧蓮如,等等。

- 東華醫院、保良局、華商總會等華人組織被納入政府諮詢架構。

- 華人政團的成立(如民主黨、民主建港聯盟)。

參考答案

先從用處方面討論。

資料A指港英政府「於1940年代末期開始實施公務員地化政策」,華人以「政務官」的方式參與殖民地管治,至1978年更占整體的44.4%,反映華人以政務官參與殖民管治。

資料B指1938年時華人議員數目僅只得3個,比例不足一半,但至1996年時華人議員共有60個,比例佔全部議員的整體,增長高達20倍。從上述分析華人以立法局議員的身份參與殖民管治,以表達他們的需要和訴求。

現從局限方面討論。

就我所知,新界鄉議局於1926年成立,新界居民可透過鄉議局作為「中間人」而對港英政府表達意見,以加強雙方溝通,同時亦可反映華人以鄉議局間接管治的方式參與殖民管治。

同時,華人精英如何啟、周壽臣等以其知識水平及社會地位被港英政府邀請加入政府工作,他們不但協助港英殖民管治,更致力改善港人生活水平,顯示華人精英也屬其一華人參與殖民管治的方法。

其次,華人也曾參與市政局、行政局等政府機構以表達他們的意見,從而協調政府與港人之間的合作,以穩定社會發展,反映華人透過市政局和行政局來參與殖民管治。

再加上,華人自行組織政黨如民建聯、匯點和港同盟等,以參與選舉和發動遊行示範以左右政府決策,此亦表示政黨組成為一華人參與殖民管治之方法。

最後,華人不但如資料所示成為政務官參與管治,當中更有些出色華人擔任高級公務員如陳方安生、曾蔭權等分別擔任布政司和財政司等,從而加入殖民管治。



參考答案(英文版)


(a) With reference to Source A, identify two causes for changes in the colonial administration of Hong Kong after the Second World War. (2 marks)



Candidates’ performance

Most candidates were able to point out two causes for changes in the colonial administration of Hong Kong after the Second World War.

Marking scheme

- Birth of the People’s Republic of China

- Trend of anti-colonialism in the world ran high

Suggested answer

Anti-colonialism emerged in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) which led to changes in the colonial administration of Hong Kong.

According to source A, the “birth of the People’s Republic of China” forced the colonial government  “to introduce drastic changes” after WWII, giving up previous approaches in administration in response to the changing political environment. Therefore the birth of PRC caused changes in colonial administration of Hong Kong after WWII.

Meanwhile, source A also states that there was a “rising tide of global anti-colonialism”, which pushed the colonial government to decentralize its power by allowing local Chinese to take part in administration, and to bring about administrative changes so as to remain in power. Prevalence of anti-colonialism hence also gave rise to changes in post-war colonial administration.

(b) With reference to Source B, identify two changes in the Legislative Council in the period 1938-1996. Cite two clues from Source B to support your answer. (2+2 marks)



Candidates’ performance

Most candidates were able to point out two changes in the Legislative Council in the period 1938-1996, and supported their answers with clues from the source. Some weaker candidates merely cited the data without summarizing the changes, and were thus awarded no marks.

Marking scheme

L1 Identify two changes without citing relevant clues or identify one change supported by relevant clue. [max. 2]

L2 Identify two changes supported by relevant clues. [max. 4]

Changes:

e.g.:

- The number of Chinese members continuously increased

- The number of seats for unofficial members increased continually while that for official members decreased continually

- Before 1986, all members were appointed; after 1986, elected members increased gradually

Clues:

e.g.:

- Able to cite relevant figures

- Able to use hints such as ‘appointed’ and ‘elected’ from the table

Suggested answer

The first change shown in source B is the continuous increase of Chinese members in the Legislative Council.

In 1938, there were only 3 Chinese legislators out of 17, which was far less than half of the total number of legislators. In 1996, all 60 members of the Legislative Council were Chinese. From the above data, it can be seen that the number of Chinese legislators increased from 3 in 1938 to all 60 in 1996, there was a continuous increase of Chinese legislators.

The second change is the way of selecting legislators, which changed from appointment to election.

Source B shows that in 1938, all 17 official and unofficial members of the Legislative Council was appointed. However in 1996, all 60 legislators were elected . There was a change of method in selecting legislators from 1938 to 1996, from appointment to election.

(c) What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources A and B in reflecting the participation of local Chinese in the colonial administration of Hong Kong up to 1997? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)



Candidates’ performance

Most candidates were able to point out the usefulness and limitations of the sources, but excellent answers were rare. Quite many candidates merely cited information from the source without discussing how it was related to the Chinese participation in Hong Kong’s colonial administration. Moreover, many candidates failed to cite concrete example when discussing limitations. Weaker candidates misunderstood the question as requiring an explanation of the local Chinese participation in Hong Kong’s colonial administration.

Marking scheme

L1 Lopsided: discussing either usefulness or limitations of the sources. [max. 4]

L2 Comprehensive: discussing both usefulness and limitations. [max. 7]



Usefulness:

e.g.:

- Source A: the number of Administrative Officers who were Chinese increased gradually after 1950

- Source B: the number of Chinese members in the Legislative Council increased continually in the period 1938-1996

Limitations:

e.g.:

- lack concrete example: Chinese members in the Legislative and Executive Councils such as Ho Kai, Shouson Chow, Sze-Yuen Chung, and Lydia Dunn.

- Chinese organizations such as Tung Wah Hospital, Po Leung Kuk and Chinese General Chamber of Commerce formed part of the consultation framework of the government.

- Chinese political groups were set up (e.g. The Democratic Party of Hong Kong and The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB)).

Suggested answer

Usefulness of the sources will first be discussed.

Source A states that colonial government “began to implement the policy of localizing the civil service in the late 1940s”, local Chinese took part in colonial administration as “Administrative Officers”. Until 1978, 44.4% of Administrative Officers were Chinese, indicating that Chinese participated in colonial rule as Administrative Officers.

Source B shows that the number of Chinese legislator was 3 in 1938, which was far less than half of the total number of legislators. However in 1996, all 60 members of the Legislation Council were Chinese, there was a 20 times increase. This shows that Chinese started to take part in colonial administration by joining the Legislative Council, so as to voice out their concerns and demands.

Limitations of the sources will be discussed below.

According to my knowledge, Heung Yee Kuk was established in 1926, allowing indigenous inhabitants to voice out their opinion to the colonial government, Heung Yee Kuk facilitated communication between them. Heung Yee Kuk also acted as an indirect channel for Chinese to participate in colonial administration.

Meanwhile, Chinese elites such as  Ho Kai and Chou Shouson was invited to join the government because of their high level of education and social status. They not only assisted colonial government in administration, but also strived for better living standard of the locals, showing that Chinese elites also took part in colonial administration.

Moreover, local Chinese joined governmental organizations such as the Regional Council and Executive Council to give advice to the colonial government and to facilitate cooperation between the government and locals, which contributed to stable social development. Hence local Chinese participated in colonial administration by joining Regional Council and Executive Council.

Local Chinese also organized political parties such as Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong, Meeting Point and The United Democrats of Hong Kong, through elections and demonstrations, they aimed to influence government policies, which is also regarded as Chinese participation in colonial administration.



Last but not least, local Chinese not only took up the position as Administrative Officers, some Chinese elites even became high-ranking civil servants, for instance,  Anson Chan and Donald Tsang were appointed asChief Secretary and Financial Secretary respectively, which was also a way to take part in colonial adminstration.

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