看法 例：對歐盟前景並不樂觀，前路危險且波折重重。 解釋 L1 僅提出相關線索而未能解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能提出相關線索並作解釋。 [最多2分] 例：
L1 答案混淆，未能提供相關史實以作支持。 [最多2分] L2 解釋清楚，且能引用相關史實加以解釋。 [最多4分] 相關史實 例：
(b) 1992年以後的發展，能否支持你在題(a)(i) 所述漫畫家的看法？試以1992－2000年間的相關史實解釋你的答案。（3分）
L1 答案混淆，未能提供相關史實以作支持。 [最多1分]
L2 解釋清楚，且能引用相關史實加以解釋。 [最多3分]
(a)(i) What was the cartoonist’s view of the prospects of the European Union? Cite one clue from Source F to explain your answer. (1+2 marks)
Most candidates were able to point out that that cartoonist was pessimistic of the prospect of the European Union, and explain their answers with clues from the source. However, some candidates did not provide due explanation of the clues after citing them.
- Not optimistic about the prospect of the European Union; the way ahead was perilous and full of ups and downs Explanations L1 Cite relevant clues without explanation. [max. 1] L2 Cite relevant clues with due explanation. [max. 2] e.g.:
- The words “W next 500km” on the road sign clearly show that the road ahead would be full of ups and downs
- The train, which symbolises Europe, will soon go drastically up and down with the roller-coaster rails
- The man in the train: the look on his face reflects his worry with regard to the prospect of the European Union
The cartoonist thinks that European Union would face obstacles, he was pessimistic of the prospect of an united Europe.
According to source F, it is shown that the founder members of the European Union such as “Britain” and “Germany” were on a journey to a “united Europe”, indicating that European countries cooperated to remain on good terms. The cartoon shows that the “next 500 km” rail is winding, meaning that obstacles will emerge ahead. The prospect of an united Europe was pessimistic and would face hindrance.
(ii) Why do you think the cartoonist held such a view? Explain your answer with reference to the history of European integration in the period 1957-1992. (4 marks)
Performance was average. The more competent candidates were able to use proper examples in explaining the cartoonist’s pessimism. The weaker candidates failed to substantiate their answers.
L1 Vague answer, unable to provide relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 2] L2 Clear explanations with relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 4] Relevant historical facts e.g.:
- France strongly objected to British entry into the European Economic Community in the 1960s
- member states of the EU have not been able to reach consensus regarding economic problems (such as common agricultural policies)
According to my own knowledge, Britain applied for membership of the European Commonwealth in 1963 and 1967 but was refused due to opposition from France, showing that European countries held different opinion in European integration, hence the cartoonist is pessimistic about it. Other than that, differences in European integration emerged. For instance, the Common Agricultural Policy was only beneficial to countries with large proportion of agricultural export like France, the policy was unfavorable to self-sufficient countries such as Britain. Under such circumstances, disputes appeared during their cooperation, hindering future integration.
(b) Did the developments after 1992 support the cartoonist’s view you noted in (a)(i)? Explain your answer with relevant historical facts from the period 1992-2000. (3 marks)
The abler candidates were able to support or oppose the cartoonist’s view with substantiation, while the weaker candidates provided unsubstantiated answers. Some candidates ignored the period specified in the question, and argued their cases with pre-1992 examples, hence scoring no marks.
L1 Vague answer, unable to provide relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 1] L2 Clear explanations and able to cite relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 3] Relevant historical facts e.g.:
- until 2000, Britain had refused to adopt Euro as a legal currency
- only half of the European voters voted in the 1999 European Council election, reflecting that the concept of European integration had not gained adequate support from people in various European countries
* Candidates in general will hold the view that such developments were able to support the cartoonist’s view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that reflect other views and are presented logically.
The development after 1992 supported the cartoonist’s view to a large extent. According to my own knowledge, although the European Union was established in 1993, not all European countries were eligible to be a member of it, the power of most Eastern European countries including Romania and Bulgaria was weak, hence they were refused membership of the European Union. This reflects that the European Union held different opinions in terms of membership, which was challenging like how it is depicted in the cartoon. Meanwhile, although hard boarders were abolished in the Schengen Agreement to promote exchange of human resources and trade, not all European countries took part in the agreement. Britain would be a stark example in refusing to sign the agreement due to national tradition, this undermined the effectiveness of the agreement, matching the view of the cartoonist. Apart from that, the Treaty of Amsterdam was signed in 1997 to prevent overly close integration, the “emergency brake” term was included in the treaty, such that countries could refuse to sign the agreement when the terms harm their national interest. This shows that European integration was pessimistic. Last but not least, although European Union set up the European Council and passed the Single Monetary Act, the first round of voting of the council did not exceed 50%, meaning that European countries were unwilling to cooperate other than in economic aspect. On the other hand, not all countries replaced their old currency with Euro in 1999, for instance, Britain continued to circulate pound sterling even after the act, further integration was hindered.