【2006】歐洲統合丨歐盟將會面對的挑戰




題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)


(a)(i)漫畫家對歐盟的前景持什麼看法?試從資料F引用一項線索,解釋你的答案。(1+2分)


考生表現

大多數考生均能指出漫畫家對歐盟的前景不甚樂觀,並引用相關線索加以解釋。惟部分考生只引用線索,卻未有加以解釋。

評分準則

看法 例:對歐盟前景並不樂觀,前路危險且波折重重。 解釋 L1 僅提出相關線索而未能解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能提出相關線索並作解釋。 [最多2分] 例:

- 路牌上的「W前面500公里」字樣明示前路波折重重。 - 火車快將隨過山車軌大上大落,象徵歐洲快將經歷重重波折。 - 火車上的男子表露出的神情反映出對歐盟前景的憂慮。

參考答案

漫畫家認為歐盟將會遇到阻礙,統合一事發展並不樂觀。 參考資料F,漫畫家描圖歐盟創始國如「英國」、「德國」等正踏上「團結的歐洲」的旅途,意味著歐洲加緊合作關係良好。然而,漫畫指出「W前面500公里」的路都迂回曲折,表示前路困難重重,統合一事並不樂觀將會遇上阻礙。

(ii) 你認為漫畫家為何持此看法?試就1957-1992年間歐洲統合的歷史解釋你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現一般。表現較佳的考生能以史例說明漫畫家對歐盟前景不表樂觀的原因。表現較差的考生則未能列舉史例。

評分準則

L1 答案混淆,未能提供相關史實以作支持。 [最多2分] L2 解釋清楚,且能引用相關史實加以解釋。 [最多4分] 相關史實 例:

- 法國曾於1960年代大力反對英國申請加入歐洲經濟共同體。 - 歐洲成員國一直未能就經濟問題(例如共同農業政策等)取得共識。

參考答案

就我所知,1963及1967年時英國兩次申請加入歐洲經濟共同體,然而遭受法國反對而拒絕加入,顯示歐洲國家對於統合一事存有分歧,故漫畫家認為合作前景不樂觀。 其次,歐洲國家對統合政策出現分歧,例如《共同農業政策》有利於農業大國如法國出口,對於農業自給自足國如英國等造成利益損失,於此情況底下,她們於統治期間出現矛盾,亦阻礙往後合作。

(b) 1992年以後的發展,能否支持你在題(a)(i) 所述漫畫家的看法?試以1992-2000年間的相關史實解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

能力較差的考生能以具體史例支持或否定漫畫家的看法,表現較差的考生則多泛泛而論。少數考生未有留意題目所設時限,以992年以前的史例充數,因而未能得分。

評分準則

L1 答案混淆,未能提供相關史實以作支持。 [最多1分] L2 解釋清楚,且能引用相關史實加以解釋。 [最多3分]

相關史實 例:

- 直至2000年,英國一直拒絕採納歐羅為法定貨幣。 - 1999年歐洲議會選舉僅有半數歐洲選民參加投票,反映出歐洲聯合概念未能充分獲得歐洲各國人民認同。 * 一般考生只會選答該等發展能支持漫畫家的看法。倘考生持其他觀點、只要言之成理,亦應酌量給分。

參考答案

題目所言確能成立。 就我所知,儘管歐洲聯盟於1993年成立,但並非全部歐洲國家都參與成為會員國,尤其是大部分東歐國家包括羅馬尼亞、保加利亞等她們國力相繼弱,都被歐盟拒諸門外,反映歐聯對會員國持有分歧,如漫畫家所示充滿挑戰。 同時,即使歐洲於1995年實行《申根公約》取消各國邊境關卡,從而促進人力資源、貨品往來。但同樣不是全體歐洲國家都有參與協定,最明顥的例子莫過於英國以民族傳統為由拒絕簽署,削弱協定成效,符合漫畫家所指統合出現阻礙。 此外,為免統合過於緊密,歐洲國家於1997年通過《阿姆斯特丹條約》落實「急緊煞車」條款,表示遇上重大決策時國家可因損害國家利益為由而否決議定,反映統合前景並不樂觀。 最後,即使歐盟成立歐洲議會並通過《統一貨幣法案》,但一方面歐洲議會首輪投票就不多於50%,反映各國不願於經濟以外範疇進行協作;另一方面,並不是所有國家都使用歐羅(1999),例如英國依然用英鎊貿易正好一例,合作遇上分歧。

參考答案(英文版)


(a)(i) What was the cartoonist’s view of the prospects of the European Union? Cite one clue from Source F to explain your answer. (1+2 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Most candidates were able to point out that that cartoonist was pessimistic of the prospect of the European Union, and explain their answers with clues from the source. However, some candidates did not provide due explanation of the clues after citing them.

Marking scheme

View e.g.:

- Not optimistic about the prospect of the European Union; the way ahead was perilous and full of ups and downs Explanations L1 Cite relevant clues without explanation. [max. 1] L2 Cite relevant clues with due explanation. [max. 2] e.g.:

- The words “W next 500km” on the road sign clearly show that the road ahead would be full of ups and downs - The train, which symbolises Europe, will soon go drastically up and down with the roller-coaster rails - The man in the train: the look on his face reflects his worry with regard to the prospect of the European Union

Suggested answer

The cartoonist thinks that European Union would face obstacles, he was pessimistic of the prospect of an united Europe. According to source F, it is shown that the founder members of the European Union such as “Britain” and “Germany” were on a journey to a “united Europe”, indicating that European countries cooperated to remain on good terms. The cartoon shows that the “next 500 km” rail is winding, meaning that obstacles will emerge ahead. The prospect of an united Europe was pessimistic and would face hindrance.

(ii) Why do you think the cartoonist held such a view? Explain your answer with reference to the history of European integration in the period 1957-1992. (4 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was average. The more competent candidates were able to use proper examples in explaining the cartoonist’s pessimism. The weaker candidates failed to substantiate their answers.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to provide relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 2] L2 Clear explanations with relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 4] Relevant historical facts e.g.:

- France strongly objected to British entry into the European Economic Community in the 1960s - member states of the EU have not been able to reach consensus regarding economic problems (such as common agricultural policies)

Suggested answer

According to my own knowledge, Britain applied for membership of the European Commonwealth in 1963 and 1967 but was refused due to opposition from France, showing that European countries held different opinion in European integration, hence the cartoonist is pessimistic about it. Other than that, differences in European integration emerged. For instance, the Common Agricultural Policy was only beneficial to countries with large proportion of agricultural export like France, the policy was unfavorable to self-sufficient countries such as Britain. Under such circumstances, disputes appeared during their cooperation, hindering future integration.

(b) Did the developments after 1992 support the cartoonist’s view you noted in (a)(i)? Explain your answer with relevant historical facts from the period 1992-2000. (3 marks)


Candidates’ performance

The abler candidates were able to support or oppose the cartoonist’s view with substantiation, while the weaker candidates provided unsubstantiated answers. Some candidates ignored the period specified in the question, and argued their cases with pre-1992 examples, hence scoring no marks.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to provide relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 1] L2 Clear explanations and able to cite relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 3] Relevant historical facts e.g.:

- until 2000, Britain had refused to adopt Euro as a legal currency - only half of the European voters voted in the 1999 European Council election, reflecting that the concept of European integration had not gained adequate support from people in various European countries * Candidates in general will hold the view that such developments were able to support the cartoonist’s view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that reflect other views and are presented logically.

Suggested answer

The development after 1992 supported the cartoonist’s view to a large extent. According to my own knowledge, although the European Union was established in 1993, not all European countries were eligible to be a member of it, the power of most Eastern European countries including Romania and Bulgaria was weak, hence they were refused membership of the European Union. This reflects that the European Union held different opinions in terms of membership, which was challenging like how it is depicted in the cartoon. Meanwhile, although hard boarders were abolished in the Schengen Agreement to promote exchange of human resources and trade, not all European countries took part in the agreement. Britain would be a stark example in refusing to sign the agreement due to national tradition, this undermined the effectiveness of the agreement, matching the view of the cartoonist. Apart from that, the Treaty of Amsterdam was signed in 1997 to prevent overly close integration, the “emergency brake” term was included in the treaty, such that countries could refuse to sign the agreement when the terms harm their national interest. This shows that European integration was pessimistic.  Last but not least, although European Union set up the European Council and passed the Single Monetary Act, the first round of voting of the council did not exceed 50%, meaning that European countries were unwilling to cooperate other than in economic aspect. On the other hand, not all countries replaced their old currency with Euro in 1999, for instance, Britain continued to circulate pound sterling even after the act, further integration was hindered.

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