- 兩者均要德國裁軍。 - 兩者生要求德國歸還曾侵佔的土地。 相異之處 例：
L1 答案含混，未能恰當引用資料。 [最多2分]
L2 解釋清楚，並能恰當引用資料。 [最多4分]
或 波茨坦協定更為苛刻，因為： 例：
L1 片面：僅根據資料或引用相關史實。 [最多4分]
L2 全面：既根據資料亦引用相關史實。 [最多6分]
- 凡爾賽條約規定，德國須負起戰爭的所有責任及以龐大金錢作為戰爭賠償，此安排較波茨坦協定易激起德國人報復。 - 波茨坦協定取締納粹黨，並在西方各國指導下恢復民主政府，此安排較能消弭德國人的復仇心，亦能促進德國與西方之間的合作。 個人所知 例：
(a) With reference to Sources D and E, identify one similarity and one difference between the Treaty of Versailles and the Potsdam Agreement regarding the treatment of Germany. (2+2 marks)
Several candidates succeeded in identifying similarities and differences between the two sources. Some candidates merely cited the treaty terms without highlighting similarities and differences, thus scoring low marks. The weaker candidates merely listed treaty terms of different natures without drawing any comparison, and failed to gain any marks.
- both demanded disarmament of Germany - both demanded Germany to return territories it had once occupied Difference e.g.:
- the ‘war guilt clause’ in the Treaty of Versailles does not form part of the Potsdam Agreement
- the two have different demands in war reparations: the Treaty of Versailles requires Germany to pay indemnities, whereas the Potsdam Agreement requires Germany to pay reparations in the form of industrial facilities
- the Potsdam Agreement requires the setting up of a democratic government under the guidance of the Allied Powers, and such an arrangement was not seen in the Treaty of Versailles
First, both Treaty of Versailles and the Potsdam Agreement required Germany to disarm. According to source D, the Treaty of Versailles requested Germany to “greatly reduces the size of its army and navy”, while the Potsdam Agreement demanded demolishment of “military plants and weapons” in Germany, showing that both aimed to reduce Germany’s military so as to weaken Germany after WWII, prevent Germany from rising to power again. Second, only the Treaty of Versailles demanded Germany to bear full responsibility for starting the war but not the Potsdam Agreement. According to source D, Treaty of Versailles required Germany to “accept full responsibility for causing all the losses and damage to the Allied powers brought about by the war”, Germany had to admit that it started the war and pay compensation to the Allied Powers, leaving a notorious name in world history. However, there was no such term in the Potsdam Agreement.
(b) Which was harsher for Germany, theTreaty of Versailles or the Potsdam Agreement? Explain your answer with reference to Sources D and E. (4 marks)
The more competent candidates were able to compare the two sources, and clearly explain why the Treaty of Versailles or the Potsdam Agreement was harsher to Germany. Many candidates merely discussed the differences of the two documents and failed to proceed to explain why one was ‘harsher’ than the other, thus scoring low marks. Some weaker candidates even failed to compare the two sources and merely pointed out the limitation of either document.
L1 Vague answer, unable to make due reference to Sources. [max. 2] L2 Clear explanations, able to make due reference to Sources. [max. 4] Treaty of Versailles harsher, because e.g.:
- the Treaty of Versailles specifies that Germany needs to accept full responsibility for causing the war; there is no such unreasonable arrangement in the Potsdam Agreement; therefore the former made a greater blow to German national dignity - Germany had to pay a large sum of money as war indemnities; Potsdam Agreement only requires reparations in non-cash form. The blow on German economy is more serious in the former case. OR Potsdam Agreement harsher, because e.g.:
- Potsdam Agreement divides Germany into four occupation zones and set up a new government under foreign guidance, which severely harm German national dignity; the Treaty of Versailles does not contain such a sovereignty-violation clause; therefore the Potsdam Agreement is harsher
The Treaty of Versailles was harsher than the Potsdam Agreement.
According to source D, the Treaty of Versailles requested Germany to “accept full responsibility for causing all the losses and damage to the Allied powers brought about by the war”, meaning that Germany ought to admit it started the war and would leave a trace in history. This undermined national pride of German people, thus the Treaty of Versailles was harsher.
Moreover, source D states that Germany had to compensate “20 billion gold marks”, this huge amount of indemnity would greatly strike German economy, causing a high unemployment rate, inflation and wealth gap in post-war German society, worsening the lives of German people, the Treaty of Versailles was therefore harsher.
On the contrary, source D shows that the Potsdam Agreement did not demand Germany to bear responsibility of causing the war, instead, the agreement states that the war was caused by multiple factors, every country should share the responsibility for starting war. The Potsdam Agreement also demanded Germany to “pay war indemnities with its industrial facilities”, which would facilitate development of Germany’s export industry, revitalizing its economy, the Potsdam Agreement was therefore less harsh.
(c) Do you agree that the Potsdam Agreement was more effective than the Treaty of Versailles in preventing Germany from waging war? Explain your answer with reference to Sources D and E, and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
Most candidates were able to substantiate their answers, but few could make use of both the sources and own knowledge in explaining their view. Some answers were only based on the source, and appeared to be lopsided. A few weaker candidates did not compare the two sources, and merely pointed out the limitations of the Versailles Treaty.
L1 Lopsided: merely referring to Sources or citing relevant historical facts. [max. 4] L2 Comprehensive: referring to Sources and citing relevant historical facts. [max. 6] Potsdam Agreement was more effective than Treaty of Versailles in preventing Germany from waging war Sources e.g.:
- Treaty of Versailles specified that Germany needs to accept full war responsibility and that Germany paid large sum of money as war reparations; it is more likely that this arrangement would instigate the Germans to take revenge. - Potsdam Agreement outlawed the Nazi Party and restored a democratic government under the guidance of the Western countries. This arrangement was effective in preventing the Germans from taking revenge and promoting co-operation between Germany and the West. Own knowledge e.g.:
- Because the Germans held the view that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair to Germany, Hitler led the Nazi Party to demand treaty revision. He got mass support and underwent massive territorial expansion.
- After the Second World War, the USA actively supported Germany (West Germany), which was a bale to continuously maintain co-operative relationship with the Western countries (such as joining the European Coal and Steal Community, the NATO, and the European Economic Community). It was therefore not resentful to the post-war arrangements.
* Candidates in general will hold the view that the Potsdam Agreement was more effective than the Treaty of Versailles in preventing Germany from waging war. However, marks may be awarded to awarded that reflect other views and are presented logically.
The Potsdam Agreement was more effective in preventing Germany from waging war. According to source E, the Potsdam Agreement decided to “ban the Nazi Party” and set up “democracy under the guidance of the Allied Powers” to prevent extreme ideologies from emerging and to maintain Germany’s stability by establishing a democratic system. This was beneficial to Germany in repairing its relationship with other European countries, hence preventing war. On the contrary, according to source D, the Treaty of Versailles demanded Germany to “accept full responsibility for causing all the losses and damage to the Allied powers brought about by the war”, Germany had to admit responsibility in waging war, severely undermining their national pride and might even give rise to revanchism, which would bring about the outbreak of another war. Hence the Treaty of Versailles failed to prevent future war. Other than that, source E indicates that the Potsdam Agreement required Germany to “pay war indemnities with its industrial facilities”, Germany had to manufacture resources as compensation to the Allied Powers, this is beneficial to Germany’s post-war export industry and revitalizing its economy, which in turn could prevent another war. In contrast, according to source D, the Treaty of Versailles demanded Germany to compensate “20 billion gold marks”, the huge amount of compensation not only increased the economic burden of Germany, but also disabling Germany to recover its economy, which might give rise to extreme ideologies, leading to another war. As a result the Treaty of Versailles could not prevent future war. According to my own knowledge, Hitler rose to power in 1933 upholding his aim to overthrow the Treaty of Versailles. He first rearmed Germany in 1935 and initiated invasions, including Annexation of Austria in 1938, invasion of Czech and Poland in 1939, which eventually led to the outbreak of WWII, showing that the Treaty of Versailles catalysed the outbreak of another war. Nevertheless, Germany maintained a cooperative relationship with the Allied Powers after WWII, it not only joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949 and exchanged intelligence, it also became the founder member of the European Community in 1967 with considerable influence. The Potsdam Agreement could thus prevent outbreak of another war.