L1 僅有一項特徵，或有關兩項特徵但未能有效以資料線索支持。 [最多2分] L2 有兩項特徵，並能恰當地運用資料線索支持。 [最多4分] 特徵︰ 例︰ - 紅衛兵自稱忠於毛澤東。 - 紅衛兵是造反派。
第一個特徵是紅衛兵忠於並信奉毛澤東思想。 資料C的《紅衛兵戰歌》中指出「我們是毛主席的紅衛兵」，這可表示紅衛兵的立場是從屬於毛澤東，他們堅信毛澤東的主張並追隨之，並靠「毛澤東思想來武裝」，顯示紅衛兵是忠於毛澤東思想的特徵。 第二個特徵是紅衛兵屬於造反派。 資料C的歌詞指出紅衛兵「敢批判、敢鬥爭」，對「無產階級立場最堅定」，以「徹底砸爛舊世界」為目標，決心將「把右派全肅清」，反映紅衛兵將屬於造反派別，主張打倒右派或其他修正主義份子的特徵。
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知，及/ 或未能討論對中國現代化的影響。 [最多2分] L2 僅能運用資料或個人所知，及/或未能充分討論對中國現代化的影響。 [最多3分] L3 能運用資料及個人所知，並能充分討端對中國現代化的影響。 [最多6分] 例︰ - 文化大革命僅容許一種思想（即「毛澤東思想」）的存在，這大大窒礙了中國知識界的發展。（資料及個人所知） - 文化大革命鼓吹極左思想（例如紅衛兵的造反行為），拖慢了中國在各方面的發展。（資料及個人所知） ** 一般考生會選答文化大革命有害於中國的現代化。倘考生持相反意見，只要言之成理，亦應酌量給分。
文化大革命確實阻礙中國現代化。 首先，資料C的《紅衛兵戰歌》指出紅衛兵是屬於「毛主席的」，並以「毛澤東思想來武裝」，從而「橫掃一切害人蟲」，顯示文化大革命時人們只會追隨毛澤東左傾思想，對中國發展現代化構成威脅。 其次，資料C指出紅衛兵「敢批判、敢鬥爭」，不但「革命造反永不停」，更要「徹底砸爛舊世界」，持續不斷的鬥爭導致中國政局動盪不安，難以進行改革富強，實阻礙中國現代化進程。 同時，資料C指出紅衛兵對持「最堅定」的「無產階級」，對右派更主張「全肅清」，以防「害人蟲」再度危害中國。然而，這種極端主張將損害社會多元及言論自由價值，妨礙思想文化交流，不利於中國現代化。 經濟方面，文革造成嚴重損失。就我所知，文化大革命期間人們忙於批鬥不事生產，工人罷工工廠停頓。結果，十年文革造成近5000億美元損失，相等於建國三十年總和，嚴重損害中國現代化。 教育方面，文化大革命時主張「讀書無用論」，認為上學只會「愈讀愈蠢」，結果知識份子停止教育，更回應毛澤東響應「上山下鄉」（1967）到農村再教育，結果到1982年時近2億人文盲或半文盲，人才流失難以推行現代化改革。 社會方面，文化大革命時主張「爹親娘親不及毛主席」，不少紅衛兵為擁護毛澤東思想而批鬥自己父母，如薄熙來批鬥其父，人倫道德遭到破壞，往後人們變得自私，難以團結發展現代化。 總括而言，十年浩劫對造成經濟文化嚴重倒退，讓所有中國人承受著這場不幸。因此，題目所言成立。
(a) Infer from Source C two characteristics of the Red Guards. Support your answer with relevant clues from Source. (4 marks)
Performance was good. On the whole, candidates were able to identify two characteristics of the Red Guards, supported by relevant clues from the Source. A few candidates had actually identified one only although they thought they had presented two (e.g. ‘admire Mao Zedong’ and ‘support Mao Zedong’). The weak candidates merely quoted the Source without inferring any characteristics of the Red Guards.
L1 Only on characteristic, or two but weakly supported by clues of the Source. [max. 2] L2 Two characteristics that are duly supported by clues of the Source. [max. 4]
- Red Guards claimed to be loyal to Mao Zedong. - Red Guards were rebellious.
The first characteristic is that the Red Guards were loyal to Mao Zedong and they believed in Mao’s thoughts. According to Source C, ‘The battle Song of the Red Guards’ pointed out that “We are Chairman Mao’s Red Guards”, showing that they belonged to Mao Zedong and they firmly believed and followed Mao’s ideas. Also, the song indicated that “We arm ourselves with Mao Zedong’s thought”, reflecting that the Red Guards were loyal to Mao Zedong. The second characteristic is that the Red Guards belonged to the Rebel Faction. According to Source C, the Red Guards “dare to criticize and repudiate, dare to struggle” and “absolutely firm in our proletarian stand”. Also, their purposes were to “smash the old world” and “wipe out all the rightists”. It reflects that the Red Guards belonged to the Rebel Faction which advocated struggling against the rightists or revisionists.
(b) Do you agree that the Cultural Revolution was harmful to China’s modernization? Explain your answer with reference to Source C and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
Performance was average. The question required candidates to discuss the impact of the Cultural Revolution on China’s modernization, using the Source and their own knowledge. Some candidates failed to specify which part of their answers came from the Source and which from their own knowledge, hence hampering their performance. Some candidates focused on the negative impact, but did not relate their answers to the key word ‘modernization’. Some adopted the ‘to what extent’ approach in answering this question, which is acceptable; candidates should clearly explain their standpoints, but many who adopted this approach failed to do so. A few candidates mistook the Cultural Revolution as the New Culture Movement during the May Movement, thus scoring no marks.
L1 Vague answer, unable to effectively refer to the Source and own knowledge, and/or with little attention to the effect on China’s modernization. [max .2] L2 Merely refers to the Source or own knowledge, and/or with inadequate treatment of the effect on China’s modernization. [max .3] L3 Refers to both Source and own knowledge, with adequate treatment of the effect on China’s modernization. [max .6]
- Cultural Revolution allowed the existence of only one thought (i.e., Mao Zedong’s Thought), and this suffocated China’s intellectual development. (Source and own knowledge) - Cultural Revolution promoted ultra-leftism (e.g. Red Guard’s rebellious behaviors), and slowed down China’s developments in every aspect (Source and own knowledge).
** Candidates in general will hold the view that the Cultural Revolution was harmful to China’s modernization. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are presented logically.
I agree that the Cultural Revolution was harmful to China’s modernization. Firstly, according to Source C, ‘The battle Song of the Red Guards’ pointed out that “We are Chairman Mao’s Red Guards” and also they armed themselves “with Mao Zedong’s thought” in order to “sweep away all pests” that threatened them. It reflects that people would only follow Mao’s leftist thought during the Cultural Revolution which threatened the progress of China’s modernization. Moreover, according to Source C, the Red Guards “dare to criticize and repudiate, dare to struggle”. The lyrics showed that “Revolutionary rebellion will never stop.” And the Red Guards would “smash the old world”. However, the continuous struggle had led to political turmoil in China, making it difficult to carry out reforms to strengthen the country. Hence, the Cultural Revolution had undermined the progress of China’s modernization. Source C also indicated that the Red Guards were “absolutely firm” in their “proletarian stand” and they would like to “wipe out all the rightists” in order to “sweep away all pests” that threaten China. However, this kind of ultra-leftism promoted by the Red Guards had suffocated pluralism and freedom of speech in Chinese society as well as hindering exchange of ideas. Hence, the Cultural Revolution had undermined the progress of China’s modernization. In economic aspect, the Cultural Revolution caused heavy economic losses. According to my own knowledge, as people were busy with struggling, the workers were on strike and productions in factories were stopped. As a result, US$500 billion loss was caused by the 10-year Cultural Revolution that was equivalent to 30 years of income of PRC since its establishment. Thus, the Cultural Revolution had undermined the progress of China’s modernization. In educational aspect, the Cultural Revolution promoted the idea “studying is useless”. Sayings such as “The more you study, the more foolish you become” were popular. As a result, students deferred their education and they were sent to the mountains and countryside (1967) for re-education. Till 1982, nearly 200 million people were illiterate or semi-literate. Loss of talent had made it difficult to carry out modernization reforms in China. In social aspect, the Cultural Revolution advocated that “parents may love me, but not as much as Chairman Mao”. Many Red Guards had struggled against their parents so as to show their loyalty to Mao’s thought. For example, Bo Xilai had struggled against his father. At that time, morals had been declined in China and people became self-centered. It was hard to unite people together to carry out modernization reforms. To conclude, the Cultural Revolution caused serious economic recession and loss of traditional culture. All Chinese people had suffered from this 10-year catastrophe. Therefore, I agree with the statement.