(a) 根據資料B，何謂「中國問題的真解決」？ (2分)
(b) 就反映20世紀首十年孫中山的革命思想而言，資料B有何局限？試加以討論。 (4分)
L1 答案含混，未能舉出相關史例加以說明。 [最多1分]
L2 答案清晰，能以相關史例加以說明。 [最多4分]
- 資料只能反映三民主義中的民族主義— 「一次偉大的民族運動」。
- 資料沒有提及孫中山的民生主義— 平均地權。
目的︰ 引發反軍閥情緒/期望政府會多了解人民的苦況。 線索︰
漫畫的目的是激起群眾對軍閥的不滿，從而團結一致反對軍閥統治。 首先，漫畫由一群知識份子所繪製並出版於1918年的中國，此時期中國正陷入軍閥專制統治，國民上下一心務求變革，以掃除軍閥專橫統治為目標，故推斷漫畫目的是激起群眾反抗軍閥統治。 其次，漫畫的標題為「誰謂中國國民尚能享受自由幸福那？」，以反問形式質疑中國國民的基本權益，意思即中國國民當時生活艱苦，還未有享有自由幸福，所以可估計漫畫目的是激起群眾不滿，共同對抗軍閥。 最後，漫畫家描繪中國國民身上背著外債、公債、關稅等重擔，喻意國民生活艱難，面對各式各樣壓力。而同時漫畫家描繪軍人用鎖鏈鎖住國民，令他們動彈不得，反映國民生活艱困但軍人卻視而不見，目的實為推動國民反抗軍閥統治。
(d) 你認為孫中山對1912-1920年間中國的發展會否感到滿意？試參考資料C及D，並就你所知，解釋你的答案。 (8分)
L1 論述含混，未能有效運用資料及相關史實。[最多2分] L2 論述欠均衡，僅能運用資料或相關史實。[最多5分] L3 論述合理及均衡，但同時運用資料及相關史實。[最多8分]
- 能達成民族革命，成功推翻滿清，並組成以漢人為主的政府。（個人史識） - 能達成民權革命，以共和政體取締君主政體。（個人史識） 不滿意 例︰
- 民主政體發展仍有不足，「國體之所以翻覆飄搖」。（資料C） - 中國人的民主仍未有改善，如資料D中的男子正肩負著很多沉重的負擔，例如公債、地
丁、關稅、兵捐等。 - 中國仍受帝國主義威脅，如日本提出的廿一條款及列強對中國軍閥的支持。（個人史
孫中山在小程度上對1912-1920年間中國發展感到滿意。 政治方面，孫中山對中國廢除帝制感到滿意。就我所知，革命黨人策劃辛亥革命（1911）推翻滿清政權，建立共和政府執政推行現代化改革，下放權力予國民，正切合孫中三民主義思想，所以他會感到滿意。 社會方面，孫中山對1910年代民智開啟感到滿意。就我所知，五四運動1919年爆發，國民提倡「內爭主權，外除國賊」，發起遊行對抗政府各種腐敗行為，顯示民智已經開啟，符合孫中山的三民主義民權思想，所以他感到滿意。 然而，孫中對中國政局發展不穩感到不滿。資料C指出民國建立後五年國體「翻覆飄搖」，而且「政治之弊」仍未得以「消除」，反映國民政府政權動盪不穩，而且未能讓中國富強，情況仍如晚清一樣腐敗不堪，故孫中山將不會感到滿意。 政治方面，孫中山對中國政治腐敗感到不滿。資料C指出辛亥革命後「一切頑迷復古之思想」皆「不容存於今日」，但袁世凱卻「獎勵舊思想」，更「無所不用其極」，結果「釀成帝制」，帝制復辟不進反退，故孫中山將不會滿意。 社會方面，孫中山對國民生活惡劣感到不滿。資料D中軍人用鎖鏈鎖住國民，而國民身上負擔著外債、公債、地丁等重擔，生活壓迫且欠缺自由幸福。中國國民仍處於水深火熱之中，將有違孫中山的民生思想，故他不會感到潮意。 同時，資料D的漫畫乃由知識份子在1918年所出版，標題為「誰謂中國國民尚能享受自由幸福那？」，暗諷中國國民仍未享受自由幸福，生活困苦，三民主義仍未全面落實，故孫中山不會樂見此等情況。 教育方面，孫中山對教育發展落後感到不滿。就我所知，中國於1912-1920年間的教育情況仍十分惡劣，僅只約20%的入學率，加上男女入學比例嚴重不平均，未能灌輸知識予新一代，孫中山將不會對此情況感到滿意。 社會方面，孫中山對中國社會陋習依然感到不滿。重男輕女的情況於1910年代十分普遍，加上不少女性仍以纏足作為美的標準，以及吸食鴉片等情況嚴重，社會風氣敗壞，孫中山將不會對此感到滿意。 總括而言，雖然1910年代中國廢除帝制建立共和政府，民眾亦意識到個人權益而促成五四運動（1919），這正切合孫中山三民主義思想，他會感到滿意。但縱觀中國各方面情況，社會腐敗依然，纏足吸食鴉片等現象仍屢見不鮮、教育發展落後，人民生活慘淡，孫中山為此感到不滿。因此，題目所言小程度成立。
(a) According to Source B, what was the ‘true solution of the Chinese question’? (2 marks)
- The replacement of the monarchy by a republic [1 mark] Clue: ‘… the transformation of this out-of-date Manchu monarchy into a Republic of China.’ [1 mark]
The ‘true solution of the Chinese question’ was the replacement of the old government by a republican government.
According to Source B, the true solution of the Chinese question refers to “the transformation of this out-of-date Manchu monarchy into a Republic of China”. Also, “a new, enlightened and progressive government must be substituted for the old one”. It reflects that the Chinese question would be solved by overthrowing the corrupt Qing government and exercising the Three People’s Principles to strengthen China.
(b) Discuss the limitations of Source B in reflecting Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary ideas in the first decade of the 20th century. (4 marks)
L1 Vague answer, and fail to cite relevant facts as evidence. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer, and substantiated by relevant facts. [max. 4]
- The Source only reflects Nationalism of samin zhuyi – ‘a great national movement’. - The Source only touches lightly the concept of ‘Republic’, without much discussion. - The Source does not mention Sun’s idea of Socialism, i.e., equalization of land ownership.
Source B only reflects Sun Yat-sen’s Principle of Nationalism but fails to reflect the Principles of Democracy and People’s Livelihood.
Source B stated that “China is now on the eve of a great national movement”. Source B believed the Chinese people’s minds were enlightened and they were ready to promote China’s modernization. Thus, Source B reflects the Principle of Nationalism among Sun Yat-sen’s Three People’s Principles.
However, Source B lightly touched the concept of “republic” which was also Sun’s revolutionary idea. Source B indicates that the “out-of-date Manchu monarchy” in China should be transformed into “a Republic of China”. But Source B does not deeply discuss the definition of “republic” and thus it cannot explain the Principle of Democracy clearly.
Lastly, Sun’s Three People’s Principles also included the Principle of People’s Livelihood. It advocated distributing land equally among the people so that people’s quality of life, economic development and the social system could be enhanced. However, Source B does not mention these so it fails to reflect the Principle of People’s livelihood.
(c) What can you infer from Source D about the purpose of the cartoon? Explain your answer. (3 marks)
L1 Vague answer, only describing the cartoon, not inferring its purpose. [max. 1] L2 Reasonable inference of the purpose, with effective reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- stimulate anti-warlord sentiment/ let the government have a better understanding of the people’s difficulties. Clues:
- The soldier at the left end of the cartoon holds a blood-stained sword, and locked a man with an iron chain. These reflect military despotism.
- The man at the right end of the cartoon was chain locked, reflecting the difficulties faced by the Chinese.
The purpose of the cartoon was to arouse people’s dissatisfaction with the warlords in order that people would be united together to oppose against the rule of warlords.
Firstly, the cartoon was depicted by a group of intellectuals and published by China in 1918. During this period, China was ruled by the dictatorial warlords. People actively sought transformation of China and aimed at abolishing the dictatorship of warlords. Thus, it can be deduced that the purpose of the cartoon was to advocate people to overthrow the rule of warlords.
Moreover, the caption of the cartoon was “Who says the Chinese people can still enjoy freedom and happiness?” The caption was questioning the basic rights and freedom enjoyed by the Chinese people in the form of a rhetorical question, reflecting that Chinese people at that time were having tough livelihood and their freedom and happiness were not guaranteed. Thus, the purpose of the cartoon was to arouse people’s dissatisfaction so that they would be united to oppose against the warlords.
Lastly, the cartoonist depicted that a Chinese was bearing the burdens symbolizing foreign debt, government bonds and customs dues, etc. It shows the tough livelihood and pressure that Chinese people were having. Also, in the cartoon, the solder was locking the Chinese with chains so that he could not escape from him. It reflects that the Chinese people were having difficult lives but the warlords had done nothing to improve their livelihood. Therefore, the purpose of the cartoon was to advocate overthrowing the rule of warlords.
(d) Do you think that Sun Yat-sen would have been satisfied with the development of China in the period 1912-1920? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D, and using your own knowledge. (8 marks)
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both the Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 5] L3 Reasonable and balanced answer, using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]
- Accomplished the national revolution, resulting in the overthrow of the Manchu and the formation of a government primarily by the Han Chinese. (own knowledge)
- Accomplished a revolution of Democracy, replacing the monarchy by a republic. (own knowledge)
Not satisfied e.g.
- Democracy was underdeveloped. ‘the form of government was altered and became unstable.’ (Source C)
- The Chinese’s livelihood was not improved. For example, the man in Source D shouldered a lot of burdens such as government bonds, land-poll tax, customs dues and military contributions. (Source D)
- China was still under the threat of imperialism. For example, Japan presented the Twenty-One Demands, and the Powers supported the warlords in China. (own knowledge)
Sun Yat-sen would have been satisfied with the development of China in the period 1912-1920 to a small extent. In political aspect, Sun Yat-sen would be satisfied with the abolition of the monarchy in China. According to my own knowledge, the revolutionaries planned the 1911 Revolution to overthrow the Qing government as well as establishing Republic of China to introduce modernization reforms. People were thus guaranteed their rights and power, which was in line with Sun’s Three People’s Principles. Therefore, Sun Yat-sen would be satisfied. In social aspect, Sun Yat-sen would be satisfied with the national awakening in the 1910s. In my knowledge, the May Fourth Movement broke out in 1919. The nationals advocated “Struggle for national sovereignty externally, get rid of national traitors internally” and protested against the corrupt behaviors of the government. It shows that people’s minds had been enlightened which was in line with Sun’s Principle of Democracy. Therefore, Sun Yat-sen would be satisfied. However, Sun Yat-sen would be dissatisfied with the political instability in China. According to Source C, since the establishment of Republic of China, the form of government was “altered and became unstable” in the past five years. Also, “political ills” were not yet “eliminated”. It reflects that the republican regime was instable and unable to strengthen China. The regime was just as corrupt as the Qing government. Thus, Sun Yat-sen would not be satisfied. In political aspect, Sun Yat-sen would be dissatisfied with China’s political corruption. According to Source C, “any obsession with the idea of restoring the past” should have “no place in today’s world” after the 1911 Revolution. However, Yuan Shikai ‘resorted to every conceivable means to promote old ideas and institutions”. Eventually, he successfully restored the monarchy in China, making China’s political modernization backward. Thus, Sun Yat-sen would not be satisfied. In social aspect, Sun Yat-sen would be dissatisfied with the poor livelihood of the people. According to Source D, the soldier locked a Chinese with chains while the Chinese was bearing lots of burdens symbolizing foreign debt, government bonds and land-poll tax etc. It reflects that people’s livelihood remained tough and they did not enjoy any freedom and happiness. It was not in line with Sun’s Principle of People’s livelihood and hence he would not be satisfied. Meanwhile, the cartoon in Source D was published by a group of intellectuals in 1918. The caption of the cartoon was “Who says the Chinese people can still enjoy freedom and happiness?” The caption was satirizing that Chinese people were still deprived of freedom and happiness as well as having tough livelihood. The Three People’s Principles were not yet achieved so Sun would not be satisfied. In educational aspect, Sun Yat-sen would be dissatisfied with the backward educational development in China. According to my own knowledge, China’s educational development was still very backward during the period 1912-1920 that the enrollment rate was about 20% only. In addition to the imbalance enrollment rate between male and female, the educational level of the new education in China remained low. Thus, Sun would not be satisfied. In social aspect, Sun Yat-sen would be dissatisfied with the existence of corrupt customs in Chinese society. China was still a patriarchal society that women were considered as the subordinates of men in the 1910s. Many women still regarded foot-binding as a standard of beauty and the situation of opium-smoking was severe. The Chinese society remained very corrupt so Sun would not be satisfied. To conclude, China had replaced the monarchy by a republican government in the 1910s. Chinese people had been enlightened, leading to the May Fourth Movement in 1919. These were in line with Sun Yat-sen’s Three People’s Principles and he would be satisfied with that. However, seeing the bigger picture of China at that time, the Chinese society was still very corrupt and customs like foot-binding and opium-smoking were not yet abolished. The educational development remained backward and people’s livelihood was tough and poor. Therefore, Sun Yat-sen would be satisfied with the development of China in the period 1912-1920 to a small extent.